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Table of Contents



https://cdn.kscope.io/375d9ae1bc6ae41f0f0d948d6132afbc-hlit-20221231_g1.jpg
2022 Annual Report



Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_______________________________________________________
Form 10-K
_______________________________________________________
(Mark One)
ýANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
¨TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File No. 000-25826
_______________________________________________________
HARMONIC INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware77-0201147
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2590 Orchard Parkway
San Jose, CA 95131
(408542-2500
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per shareHLITThe NASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
_______________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer¨Accelerated filerý
Non-accelerated filer
¨  
Smaller reporting company¨
Emerging growth company ¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   ý
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Based on the reported closing sale price of the Common Stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on July 1, 2022, the aggregate market value of the voting Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $398.6 million. Shares of Common Stock held by each executive officer and director and by each person who owns 5% or more of the outstanding Common Stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of February 22, 2023, there were 111,070,678 shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock, $0.001 par value, outstanding.
_______________________________________________________
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Registrant’s 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the end of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022) are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.



Table of Contents
HARMONIC INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Page
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C.
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.

1

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Forward Looking Statements
Some of the statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are forward-looking statements that involve risk and uncertainties. The statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), including, without limitation, statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, intentions or strategies regarding the future. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as, “may,” “will,” “should,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “could,” “believes,” “intends,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding:
developing trends and demands in the markets we address, particularly emerging markets;
macroeconomic conditions, including inflation, rising interest rates, global supply chain disruptions, volatile capital markets and foreign currency fluctuations, particularly in certain geographies, and in financial markets;
the impact of geopolitical events, including the Russia-Ukraine conflict and rising tensions between China and Taiwan and the United States, on our business and the markets in which we operate;
new and future products and services;
spending of our customers;
our strategic direction, future business plans and growth strategy;
industry and customer consolidation;
expected demand for and benefits of our products and services;
concentration of revenue sources;
expectations regarding our Broadband and Video solutions;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and related responses of businesses and governments to the pandemic, on our operations and personnel, on commercial activity in the markets in which we operate and worldwide and regional economies, and on our results of operations;
potential future acquisitions and dispositions;
anticipated results of potential or actual litigation;
our competitive environment;
the impact of our restructuring plans;
the impact of governmental regulations, including with respect to tariffs and economic sanctions;
anticipated revenue and expenses, including the sources of such revenue and expenses;
expected impacts of changes in accounting rules;
expectations regarding the usability of our inventory and the risk that inventory will exceed forecasted demand;
expectations and estimates related to goodwill and intangible assets and their associated carrying value; and
use of cash, cash needs and ability to raise capital, including repaying our Notes (as defined below) or repurchasing our common stock.
These statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, any of which may cause our actual results to differ materially from those implied by the forward-looking statements. Important factors that may cause actual results to differ from expectations include those discussed in “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. All forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on information available to us on the date thereof, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. The terms “Harmonic,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” “its,” and “our,” as used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, refer to Harmonic Inc. and its subsidiaries and its predecessors as a combined entity, except where the context requires otherwise.
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Risk Factor Summary
Our business is subject to significant risks and uncertainties that make an investment in us speculative and risky. Below we summarize what we believe are the principal risk factors but these risks are not the only ones we face, and you should carefully review and consider the full discussion of our risk factors in the section titled “Risk Factors,” together with the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If any of the following risks actually occurs (or if any of those listed elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K occur), our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, revenue, and future prospects could be seriously harmed. In that event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business.
We depend on cable, satellite and telecommunications (“telco”), and broadcast and media industry spending for our revenue and any material decrease or delay in spending in any of these industries would negatively impact our operating results, financial condition and cash flows;
The loss of one or more of our key customers, a failure to continue diversifying our customer base, or a decrease in the number of larger transactions could harm our business and our operating results;
We need to develop and introduce new and enhanced products and solutions in a timely manner to meet the needs of our customers and to remain competitive;
The markets in which we operate are intensely competitive;
Our future growth depends on a number of video and broadband industry trends;
Our software-based broadband product initiatives expose us to certain technology transition risks that may adversely impact our operating results, financial condition and cash flows;
Our operating results are likely to fluctuate significantly and, as a result, may fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts or investors, causing our stock price to decline;
We purchase several key components, subassemblies and modules used in the manufacture or integration of our products from sole or limited sources, and we rely on contract manufacturers and other subcontractors;
We face risks associated with having outsourced engineering resources located in Ukraine; and
We rely on resellers, value-added resellers and systems integrators for a significant portion of our revenue, and disruptions to, or our failure to develop and manage our relationships with these customers or the processes and procedures that support them could adversely affect our business.
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PART I
Item 1.BUSINESS
We are a leading global provider of (i) versatile and high performance video delivery software, products, system solutions and services that enable our customers to efficiently create, prepare, store, playout and deliver a full range of high-quality broadcast and streaming video services to consumer devices, including televisions, personal computers, laptops, tablets and smart phones and (ii) broadband access solutions that enable broadband operators to more efficiently and effectively deploy high-speed internet, for data, voice and video services to consumers’ homes.
We operate in two segments, Video and Broadband. During the third quarter of fiscal 2022, the Company’s Cable Access segment was renamed the Broadband segment to reflect a broader strategic view of the category. There has been no change to the composition of the segment; therefore, no prior periods were restated. Our Video business provides video processing and production and playout solutions and services worldwide to broadband operators and satellite and telco Pay-TV service providers, which we refer to collectively as “service providers,” and to broadcast and media companies, including streaming media companies. Our Video business infrastructure solutions are delivered either through shipment of our products, software licenses or as software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) subscriptions. Our Broadband business provides broadband access solutions and related services, including our CableOS software-based broadband access solution to broadband operators globally.
Across our two business segments, we derived approximately 73% of our revenue from the Americas in 2022. The Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) and Asia Pacific (APAC) regions accounted for 21% and 6% of our 2022 revenue, respectively.
Harmonic was initially incorporated in California in June 1988 and was reincorporated in Delaware in May 1995. Our principal executive offices are currently located at 2590 Orchard Parkway, San Jose, California 95131. Our telephone number is (408) 542-2500. Our Internet website is http://www.harmonicinc.com. Other than the information expressly set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the information contained or referred to on our website is not part of this report.
Industry Overview and Market Trends
Video Business
We believe our customers must continue to employ innovative technologies and services to address key trends in the dynamic video industry.
Demand for Streaming Services. In the highly competitive video industry, there is strong demand for video content to be captured, processed and streamed to millions of subscribers at scale, and with personalized service features and characteristics. We believe video streaming is, and will continue to be, the most significant trend affecting the video industry for the foreseeable future.

Demand for Targeted Advertising. Streaming technology makes it possible for streaming platforms to insert personalized targeted advertisements into video streams to consumers. This capability is highly sought after by advertisers and results in significantly higher advertising revenue for video streaming service providers. With streaming viewership continuing to grow rapidly, we believe targeted ad insertion will become a foundational pillar of the video industry in the coming years.

Streaming of Live Events. In contrast to the constraints of traditional linear broadcast channels, there is effectively no limit to the number of live events that can be streamed or the audience reach of streamed events. Consequently, we believe the number of live events globally that will be streamed to consumers, especially live sporting events, will continue to grow for the foreseeable future.

Demand for High Quality Video. High quality video for both traditional broadcast television and streaming continues to be an important factor for consumers. Compression technologies such as High Efficiency Video Compression (HEVC) or advances in H.264/AVC codecs, as well as increasing requirements for HDR encoding, will continue to remain a high priority for both broadcast and streaming providers.

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Decline in Broadcast Viewing. Broadcast television viewership will continue to decline as the growth in streaming accelerates. We believe this transition will cause traditional Pay-TV service providers and broadcasters to focus their investments on (i) providing streaming services and (ii) reducing the operational complexities and cost of broadcast television.

In response to these trends, our customers are:
expanding their streaming offerings with video-on-demand (VOD) programming, live events and/or linear TV bundles to reach a larger and more global audience;
utilizing streaming technologies to expand monetization opportunities with personalized and targeted ad insertion;
continuing to enhance and differentiate their content offerings, consolidate to achieve greater economies of scale and subscriber concentration, and acquire other companies to expand their content libraries and capabilities to develop original content; and
improving the efficiency and utilization of legacy infrastructure to minimize operational and staffing needs and costs by migrating services to public cloud SaaS or upgrading on-premise equipment with the latest generation of highly dense and functionally rich technologies.
Our Video business strategy is focused on providing our customers with software-based appliances and SaaS platforms to enable and support these trends.
Our Video Markets
Broadcast and Media Companies
Network broadcasters, programmers and content owners continue to invest in new and enhanced direct-to-consumer streaming platforms, as well as upgrade and improve the efficiencies of their traditional broadcast television services. We believe these companies will utilize new technologies, including public cloud infrastructure and SaaS platforms, to expand their streaming offerings, reach wider audiences, and increase monetization opportunities through personalized advertising, and, in parallel, reduce the complexity and cost of running and operating their traditional broadcast services.
Streaming
We believe media companies of all sizes will invest heavily in streaming services for the foreseeable future, whether for linear TV, live events or a range of VOD offerings, and that these offerings will be enhanced to include personal and targeted advertisements to increase monetization potential. We believe many of these streaming offerings will be launched by new entrants into the space, in addition to those launched by traditional media companies who have a history and brand in broadcast television.
Service Providers
Wireline Operators. Cable and telco operators continue to focus on various initiatives to improve and differentiate their service offerings from competing service providers, including bundled digital video, voice and high-speed data services; expansion of streaming service offerings to include linear TV, live events and VOD; upgraded consumer-facing applications; and capacity enhancement of high-speed data services.
Satellite Operators. Satellite operators around the world have established digital television services that serve tens of millions of subscribers, with the ability to provide tens of thousands of linear channels. We expect satellite operators to increase their investments in their streaming offerings to meet rapidly changing consumption habits and, in parallel, strive to optimize their traditional broadcast operations.
Video Infrastructure Technology Trends
Acceleration of Streaming Services. We believe the industry will continue to adopt streaming technologies at an accelerating pace to deliver video content to consumers and, increasingly, utilize public clouds to do so.
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Transformation of Broadcast Infrastructure. We believe the industry will continue to seek to transform existing broadcast infrastructure workflows into more flexible and efficient operations, in order to reduce operational and investment costs. We believe that, in order to maximize cost savings, a material portion of these operations will migrate to public clouds in the coming years, while some customers will upgrade and replace their aging on-premise equipment with next-generation software-based appliances that significantly reduce operational complexity.
Broadband Business
Industry Challenges
Broadband operators continue to face challenges from the rapid growth of demand for broadband bandwidth in their networks, driven primarily by:
more users with more connected devices and applications;
bundled digital video, voice and high-speed data services; and
bandwidth-intensive VOD and streaming video services, and interactive cloud applications.
In addition, the operation of network infrastructure is space, power and personnel intensive. Hardware-centric networks can also be expensive to update or replace. To remain competitive, especially in the face of heightened competition from non-cable service providers such as telcos to deliver gigabit data rates, broadband operators need to significantly upgrade existing equipment and network technologies.
Technology Trends
DOCSIS. We believe the cable industry will continue to deploy the DOCSIS 3.1 standard, which enables high bandwidth data transfer over existing broadband infrastructure, and we expect future adoption and deployment of the next-generation DOCSIS 4.0 standard.
Virtualization. We believe broadband operators will continue to move toward more software-driven architectures, which is central to our Broadband business and product strategy. Virtualized software solutions that are decoupled from underlying hardware and run on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) servers and/or cloud-native architectures allow for significantly increased efficiencies, upgradability, configuration flexibility, service agility and scalability not feasible with hardware-centric approaches. We believe a software-based broadband access solution can significantly reduce broadband operator facility costs, especially costs related to physical space and power consumption, and increase operational efficiency, and that the deployment of these systems will be an important step in broadband operators’ transition to all-IP networks.
Distributed Access Architecture. In addition to centralized broadband access solutions, we believe interest in distributed access solutions continues to accelerate, particularly in competitive gigabit service markets where broadband operators are competing with fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) services and are extending fiber networks deeper into their access networks. A distributed access architecture (DAA) coupled with a software-based broadband access solution running on COTS servers at a headend, and the distribution of DAA nodes closer to end users, alleviates the power and space requirements of centralized systems at headend sites due to the fact that the radio frequency (RF) processing is distributed into the field outside of the headend. We believe this distributed architecture will enable service providers to efficiently scale to support data and IP video growth.
Multiple Access. CableOS is a software-based solution that runs on COTS servers connected to distributed access nodes. Traditionally, the distributed access nodes deliver service to the subscribers over RF signals with DOCSIS. With CableOS, FTTH services over passive optical networks (PON) can be supported with software running on the CableOS servers and with remote optical line termination (OLT) modules plugged into the DAA nodes. The result is that the CableOS solution can support delivering both DOCSIS and PON services to different subscribers, which we believe is another key differentiating competitive advantage for Harmonic. As fiber is pulled deeper into the network, broadband operators will have the infrastructure and technology to deliver both traditional cable services and FTTH.
Our Broadband business strategy is focused on providing our customers with software-based solutions, on a centralized, distributed access or hybrid architecture, to enable and support these technology and industry trends.
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Our Products and Solutions
Video Processing and Delivery Solutions
We offer two categories of solutions - a broad range of software-based video appliances and SaaS platforms - to deliver broadcast and streaming services and capabilities in the media market.
Software-based Appliances. Our video processing appliances, which include network management and application software and hardware products, provide our customers with the ability to acquire a variety of signals from different sources and in different protocols in order to deliver a variety of real-time and stored content to their subscribers for viewing on a broad range of devices. Our appliance product families include:
Encoders. Our high-performance encoders compress video, audio and data channels to low bit rates while maintaining high video quality. Our latest software-based XOS encoders can deliver video in multiple formats, including standard, HD and Ultra HD, and in any video compression standard, including MPEG-2, MPEG-4 AVC and HEVC. This capability allows the encoders to converge workflows targeted for all forms of video delivery, whether broadcast or streaming.
Video Servers. Our Spectrum family of video server systems are used by broadcast and media companies to create play-to-air television channels. Our customers typically use these video server products to record incoming content from either live feeds or from tapes, encoding that content in real-time into standard media files that are then stored in the server’s file system until the content is needed for playback as part of a scheduled playlist.
High-density stream processing. We offer high-density, real-time stream processing systems capable of high-performance, high-throughput video processing for mission-critical IP video delivery applications, including multiplexing, scrambling, splicing and blackout source switching.
Edge processors. Our family of Edge processing platforms allows service providers to acquire content delivered via satellite, IP or terrestrial networks for distribution to their subscribers. These products are used by broadcasters to decode signals backhauled from live news and sporting events in contribution applications, as well as by content owners looking to distribute their content in a controlled manner to a large base of affiliates.
SaaS platforms. Our VOS360 SaaS platforms provide both streaming and channel origination and distribution services in a public cloud environment that is fully managed and operated by our 24/7 DevOps teams. Our SaaS solutions enable the packaging and delivery of high-quality streaming services, including live streaming, VOD, catch-up TV, start-over TV, network-DVR and cloud-DVR services through HTTP streaming to any device, along with dynamic and personal ad insertion. In addition, our VOS360 SaaS platforms enable the transformation of traditional broadcast video workflows into cloud-based workflows, resulting in more efficient and leaner operations for our customers. We continue to see an increasing number of customers seeking to leverage the inherent commercial, operational and infrastructure flexibility offered by our VOS360 SaaS platforms. We also provide an on-premise SaaS offering with our VOS cloud-native software solution for customers seeking to deploy a cloud-like architecture in a private data center.
Broadband Products and Solutions
Software-Based Broadband Access Solution. As demand continues to rapidly grow for high-speed broadband services such as streaming, VOD, time-shift TV and cloud DVR, we believe we can help broadband operators take advantage of this opportunity with our CableOS software-based broadband access solution, an end-to-end solution consisting of virtualized cloud-native software elements that orchestrate and connect with a variety of Harmonic and third-party indoor and outdoor hardware devices. We believe our CableOS solution delivers unprecedented scalability, agility and cost savings, and enables our customers to migrate to multi-gigabit broadband capacity and the fast deployment of DOCSIS data, video and voice services. We believe our solution resolves space and power constraints in broadband operator facilities, significantly reduces dependence on hardware upgrade cycles, and reduces total cost of ownership. Our CableOS solution can be deployed based on a centralized, distributed access or hybrid architecture.
CableOS Central Cloud Services. Our CableOS Central Cloud Services is a value-add subscription service for CableOS customers that bundles three elements: (i) 24x7 technical support, (ii) a dedicated customer success team focused on customer satisfaction and retention, and (iii) a CableOS Central Suite SaaS that enhances and simplifies the deployment, monitoring, operation and maintenance of the CableOS solution.
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Technical Support and Professional Services
We provide maintenance and support services to most of our customers under service level agreements that are generally renewed on an annual basis. We also provide consulting, implementation and integration services to our customers worldwide. We draw upon our expertise in broadcast television, communications networking, compression technology and broadband access technologies to design, integrate and install complete solutions for our customers, including integration with third-party products and services. We offer a broad range of services, including SaaS-related support and deployment, program management, technical design and planning, building and site preparation, integration and equipment installation, end-to-end system testing and comprehensive training.
Customers
We sell our products to a variety of cable, satellite and telco, and broadcast and media companies. Set forth below is a representative list of our significant end user and integrator/reseller customers, listed alphabetically, based, in part, on revenue during 2022.
United StatesInternational
AT&TAmerica Movil
Charter CommunicationsGroupe Canal
ComcastIISN Systems
Cox CommunicationsMillicom
DeltatreNetorium
Heartland Video SystemsNYL Electronica
IntelsatRogers Communications
Mega HertzTele2 Sverige AB
SESVodafone
Sales to our 10 largest customers in 2022, 2021 and 2020 accounted for approximately 67%, 58% and 51% of our net revenue, respectively. Although we continue to seek to broaden our customer base by penetrating new markets and further expanding internationally, we expect to see continuing industry consolidation and customer concentration.
During 2022, 2021 and 2020, Comcast accounted for 39%, 26% and 20% of our net revenue, respectively. The loss of any significant customer, or any material reduction in orders from any significant customer, or our failure to qualify our new products with any significant customer could materially and adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, we are involved in most quarters in one or more relatively large individual transactions. A decrease in the number of relatively larger individual transactions in which we are involved in any quarter could adversely affect our operating results for that quarter.
Sales and Marketing
In the United States and internationally, we sell our products through our own direct sales force, as well as through independent resellers and systems integrators. Our direct sales team is organized geographically and by major customers and markets to support customer requirements. Our principal sales offices outside of the United States are located in Europe and Asia, and we have support staff in Switzerland and France to support our international customers and operations. Our international resellers are generally responsible for importing our products and providing certain installation, technical support and other services to customers in their territory after receiving training from us.
Our direct sales force and resellers are supported by a highly trained technical staff, which includes application engineers who work closely with our customers to develop technical proposals and design systems to optimize system performance and economic benefits for our customers. Our technical support teams provide a customized set of services, as required, for ongoing maintenance, support-on-demand and training for our customers and resellers, both in our facilities and on-site.
Our product management organization develops strategies for product lines and markets and, in conjunction with our sales force, identifies the evolving technical and application needs of customers so that our product development resources can be most effectively and efficiently deployed to meet anticipated product requirements. Our product management organization is also responsible for setting price levels, demand forecasting and general support of the sales force, particularly at major accounts.
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Our corporate marketing organization is responsible for building awareness of the Harmonic brand in our markets and driving engagement with our strategies, solutions and products. The group develops all of our corporate messaging and manages all customer and industry communication channels, including public relations, web and social media, events and trade shows, as well as demand generation marketing campaigns in conjunction with our sales force.
Manufacturing and Suppliers
We rely on third-party contract manufacturers to assemble our products and the subassemblies and modules for our products. In 2003, we entered into an agreement with Plexus Services Corp. (“Plexus”) to act as our primary contract manufacturer. Plexus accounts for the majority of the products we purchase from our contract manufacturers. This agreement has automatic annual renewals, unless prior notice for nonrenewal is given, and has been automatically renewed for a term expiring in October 2023. We do not generally maintain long-term agreements with any of our contract manufacturers.
Many components, subassemblies and modules necessary for the manufacture or integration of our products are obtained from a sole supplier or a limited group of suppliers. While we expend considerable efforts to qualify additional component sources, consolidation of suppliers in the industry and the small number of viable alternatives have limited the results of these efforts. We do not generally maintain long-term agreements with any of our suppliers.
Intellectual Property
As of December 31, 2022, we held 121 issued U.S. patents and 49 issued foreign patents and had 56 patent applications pending. Our issued patents are scheduled to expire between 2023 and 2041. Although we attempt to protect our intellectual property rights through patents, trademarks, copyrights, licensing arrangements, maintaining certain technology as trade secrets and other measures, we cannot assure you that any patent, trademark, copyright or other intellectual property rights owned by us will not be invalidated, circumvented or challenged, that such intellectual property rights will provide competitive advantages to us, or that any of our pending or future patent applications will be issued with the claims, or the scope of the claims, sought by us, if at all. We cannot assure you that others will not develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technology, duplicate our technology or design around the patents that we own. In addition, effective patent, copyright and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited in which we do business or may do business in the future.
We enter into confidentiality or license agreements with our employees, consultants, vendors and customers as needed, and generally limit access to, and distribution of, our proprietary information. However, no assurances can be given that these actions will prevent misappropriation of our technology. In addition, if necessary, we are prepared to take legal action, in the future, to enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Any such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources, including management time, and could negatively affect our business, operating results, financial position and cash flows.
In order to successfully develop and market our products, we may be required to enter into technology development or licensing agreements with third parties. Although many companies are often willing to enter into such technology development or licensing agreements, we cannot assure you that such agreements can be negotiated on reasonable terms or at all. The failure to enter into technology development or licensing agreements, when necessary, could limit our ability to develop and market new products and could harm our business.
Backlog
We schedule production of our products and solutions based upon our backlog, open contracts, informal commitments from customers and sales projections. Our backlog consists of unfilled firm purchase orders by our customers which have not been completed. Approximately 80% of our backlog and deferred revenue is projected to be converted to revenue within a rolling one-year period. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had backlog, including deferred revenue, of $457.1 million and $441.0 million, respectively. Delivery schedules on such orders may be deferred or canceled for a number of reasons, including reductions in spending by our customers or changes in specific customer requirements. In addition, due to annual budget cycles at many of our customers, the amount of our backlog at any given time is not necessarily indicative of actual revenues for any succeeding period.
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Competition
The markets in which our Video and Broadband businesses operate are extremely competitive and have been characterized by rapid technological change and declining average selling prices in the past. The principal competitive factors in these markets include product performance, functionality and features, reliability, pricing, breadth of product offerings, brand recognition and awareness, sales and distribution capabilities, technical operations, support and services, and customer relationships with our customers. We believe that we compete favorably in each of these categories.
Our competitors in our Video appliance business are primarily comprised of providers of video delivery and video processing and compression products and solutions, broadcast equipment and solutions providers, and certain network infrastructure providers. Our competitors in our Video SaaS business include companies that offer video delivery and processing SaaS solutions, SaaS video streaming platform providers, and certain public cloud service providers.
Our competitors in our Broadband business include a number of suppliers of networking and communications equipment and solutions to broadband service providers.
Research and Development
We have historically devoted a significant amount of our resources to research and development. Research and development expenses in 2022, 2021 and 2020 were approximately $120.3 million, $102.2 million and $82.5 million, respectively. Research and development expenses as a percentage of revenue in 2022, 2021 and 2020 were approximately 19%, 20% and 22%, respectively. Our internal research and development activities are conducted primarily in the United States (California, Oregon and New Jersey), France, Israel and Hong Kong. In addition, a portion of our research and development is conducted through third-party partners with engineering resources in Ukraine and India.
Our research and development program is primarily focused on developing new products and solutions, and adding new features and other improvements to existing products and solutions. Our development strategy is to identify features and capabilities in our core software appliances and SaaS platforms that are, or are expected to be, needed by our customers. For our Video business segment, our current research and development efforts are focused on enhancing our streaming capabilities, expanding our targeted advertising technologies, and improving the efficiency and flexibility of broadcast workflows for our traditional appliances and within our SaaS platform. With respect to our Broadband business segment, our major research and development efforts are focused on broadband access solutions for both video and data, particularly the ongoing development of our centralized, distributed and hybrid CableOS software-based broadband access solutions.
Our success in designing, developing, manufacturing and selling new or enhanced products and solutions will depend on a variety of factors, including the identification of market demand for new products and solutions, product selection, timely product design and development, product performance, effective manufacturing and assembly processes, and sales and marketing. Because of the complexity inherent in such research and development efforts, we cannot assure you that we will successfully develop new products and solutions, or that new products and solutions developed by us will achieve market acceptance. Our failure to successfully develop and introduce new products and solutions would materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
Human Capital Resources
As of December 31, 2022, we employed a total of 1,340 full time employees, including 565 in research and development, 203 in sales, 300 in service and support, 54 in operations, 57 in marketing (corporate and product) and 161 in a general and administrative capacity. Of those employees, 430 were located in the United States and Canada, and 910 employees were located outside of North America in 23 countries in Central and South America, the Middle East and Africa, Europe and the Asia Pacific region. From time to time, we also employ a number of temporary employees and consultants on a contract basis. Our employees in each of France and Spain are represented by labor unions and an employee works council. None of our other employees are represented by a labor union with respect to their employment with us. We have not experienced any work stoppages, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.
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Competition for qualified personnel in the technology space is intense, and we believe that our future success largely depends upon our continued ability to attract, develop and retain highly skilled individuals across the globe. We believe we offer competitive compensation (including salary, incentive bonus and equity awards) and comprehensive benefits packages in each of our locations around the globe. We aim to create an environment in which our employees can develop and grow, and be recognized for their achievements. We offer training, development and on-demand learning programs to support continuous learning and cultivate talent throughout the company, and promote opportunities for internal mobility and recruitment across functions and geographies. We offer rewards and recognition programs, including spot awards to recognize employee contributions, patent incentive awards, and various functional recognition awards. We regularly conduct employee surveys to gauge employee engagement and satisfaction, and we use the views expressed in the surveys to influence our people strategy and policies.
As a global company, much of our success is rooted in the diversity of our teams and our commitment to inclusion, where all employees are respected regardless of gender, race, color, national origin, ancestry, citizenship, religion, age, physical or mental disability, medical condition, genetic information, pregnancy, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression, veteran status, or marital status. We are focused on understanding our diversity, equity and inclusion (DEI) opportunities and executing on a strategy to support further progress. We support regional employee-led groups that promote and drive various volunteering initiatives aimed at assisting underrepresented and disadvantaged populations in the communities where we operate, as well as internal awareness and educational campaigns on DEI-related topics. We continue to focus on building a pipeline for talent to create more opportunities for workplace gender and other diversity and to support greater representation within the company.
Available Information
Our website is located at www.harmonicinc.com, and our investor relations website is located at investor.harmonicinc.com. Copies of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available free of charge on our investor relations website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material electronically with or furnish it to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). The SEC also maintains a website that contains our SEC filings at www.sec.gov.
We announce material information to the public about us, our products and services and other matters through a variety of means, including filings with the SEC, press releases, public conference calls, webcasts, and our investor relations web site (investor.harmonicinc.com) in order to achieve broad, non-exclusionary distribution of information to the public and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Except as expressly set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the contents of our web site are not incorporated by reference into, or otherwise to be regarded as part of, this report or in any other report or document we file with the SEC, and any references to our websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.
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Item 1A.RISK FACTORS
Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry
We depend on cable, satellite and telco, and broadcast and media industry spending for our revenue and any material decrease or delay in spending in any of these industries would negatively impact our operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
Our revenue has been derived from worldwide sales to service providers and broadcast and media companies, as well as, in recent years, streaming media companies. We expect that these markets will provide our revenue for the foreseeable future. Demand for our products and solutions will depend on the magnitude and timing of spending by customers in each of these markets for the purpose of creating, expanding or upgrading their systems. These spending patterns are dependent on a variety of factors, including:
the impact of general economic conditions, actual and projected, including inflation, rising interest rates, lower consumer confidence, volatile capital markets, supply chain disruptions and the impact of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, and government and business responses thereto, on the global economy and regional economies;
access to financing;
annual budget cycles of customers in each of the industries we serve;
the impact of industry consolidation;
customers suspending, reducing or shifting spending due to: (i) new video or broadband industry standards; (ii) industry trends and technology shifts, such as virtualization and cloud-based solutions, and (iii) new products and solutions, such as products and services based on our VOS software platform or our CableOS software-based broadband access solutions;
delayed or reduced near-term spending as customers transition away from video appliance solutions and adopt new business and operating models enabled by software and cloud-based solutions, including SaaS unified video processing solutions;
federal, state, local and foreign government regulation of telecommunications, television broadcasting and streaming media;
overall demand for communication services and consumer acceptance of new video and data technologies and services;
competitive pressures, including pricing pressures;
the impact of fluctuations in currency exchange rates, such as the strengthening of the U.S. dollar; and
discretionary end-user customer spending patterns.
In the past, specific factors contributing to reduced spending have included:
uncertainty and deteriorated market conditions regionally and globally due to the COVID-19 pandemic;
weak or uncertain economic and financial conditions in the United States or one or more international markets;
uncertainty related to development of industry technology;
delays in evaluations of new services, new standards and systems architectures by certain customers;
emphasis by certain of our customers on generating revenue from existing subscribers or end-customers, rather than from new subscribers or end-customers, through construction, expansion or upgrades;
a reduction in the amount of capital available to finance projects of our customers and potential customers;
proposed and completed business combinations and divestitures by our customers and the length of regulatory review of each;
completion of a new system or significant expansion or upgrade to a system; and
bankruptcies and financial restructuring of major customers.
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In the past, adverse economic conditions in one or more of the geographies in which we offer our products have adversely affected our customers’ spending in those geographies and, as a result, our business. During challenging economic times, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia-Ukraine conflict and related inflationary pressure, and in tight credit markets, many customers have delayed and reduced and may continue to delay or reduce capital expenditures. This has resulted and could continue to result in reductions in revenue from our products, longer sales cycles, difficulties in collection of accounts receivable, slower adoption of new technologies and increased price competition. If global economic and market conditions, or economic conditions in the United States, Europe or other key markets, remain uncertain or deteriorate, we could experience a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, since most of our international revenue is denominated in U.S. dollars, global economic and market conditions may impact currency exchange rates and cause our products to become relatively more expensive to customers in a particular country or region, which could lead to delayed or reduced spending in those countries or regions, thereby negatively impacting our business and financial condition.
In addition, industry consolidation has in the past constrained, and may in the future constrain or delay, spending by our customers. Further, if our product portfolio and product development plans do not position us well to capture an increased portion of the spending of customers in the markets on which we focus, our revenue may decline.
As a result of these various factors and potential issues related to customer spending, we may not be able to maintain or increase our revenue in the future, and our operating results, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
The loss of one or more of our key customers, a failure to continue diversifying our customer base, or a decrease in the number of larger transactions could harm our business and our operating results.
Historically, a significant portion of our revenue has been derived from relatively few customers, due in part to the consolidation of media customers. Sales to our top 10 customers in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 accounted for approximately 67%, 58% and 51% of our net revenue, respectively. Although we continue to seek to broaden our customer base by penetrating new markets and further expanding internationally, we expect to see continuing industry consolidation and customer concentration.
In the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, Comcast accounted for 39%, 26% and 20% of our net revenue, respectively. Further consolidation in the cable industry could lead to additional revenue concentration for us. The loss of any significant customer, or any material reduction in orders from any other significant customer, or our failure to qualify our new products with any significant customer could materially and adversely affect, either long term or in a particular quarter, our operating results, financial condition and cash flows. Further, while Comcast’s election to license our CableOS software contains commitments in license fees to us, if Comcast deploys our solutions more slowly or at a scale that is lower than we anticipate, our operating results, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely effected.
In addition, in most quarters, we are involved in one or more relatively large individual transactions. A decrease in the number of the relatively larger individual transactions in which we are involved in any quarter could materially and adversely affect our operating results for that quarter.
As a result of these and other factors, we may be unable to increase our revenues from some or all of the markets we address, or to do so profitably, and any failure to increase revenues and profits from these customers could materially and adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
We need to develop and introduce new and enhanced products and solutions in a timely manner to meet the needs of our customers and to remain competitive.
All of the markets we address are characterized by continuing technological advancement, changes in customer requirements and evolving industry standards. To compete successfully, we must continually design, develop, manufacture and sell new or enhanced products and solutions that provide increasingly higher levels of performance and reliability and meet our customers’ changing needs. However, we may not be successful in those efforts if, among other things, our products and solutions:
•     are not cost effective;
•    are not brought to market in a timely manner;
•    are not in accordance with evolving industry standards;
•    fail to meet market acceptance or customer requirements; or
•    are ahead of the needs of their markets.
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If new standards or some of our new products are adopted later than we predict or not adopted at all, or if adoption occurs earlier than we are able to deliver the applicable products or functionality, we risk spending significant research and development time and dollars on products or features that may never achieve market acceptance or that miss the customer demand window and thus do not produce the revenue that a timely introduction would have likely produced.
If we fail to develop and market new and enhanced products and solutions on a timely basis, our operating results, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
The markets in which we operate are intensely competitive.
The markets for our products are extremely competitive and have been characterized by rapid technological change and declining average sales prices in the past.
Our competitors in our Video appliance business are primarily comprised of providers of video delivery and video processing and compression products and solutions, broadcast equipment and solutions providers, and certain network infrastructure providers. Our competitors in our Video SaaS business include companies that offer video delivery and processing SaaS solutions, SaaS video streaming platform providers, and certain public cloud service providers. Our competitors in our Broadband business include a number of suppliers of networking and communications equipment and solutions to broadband service providers.
A number of our principal business competitors in both of our business segments are substantially larger and/or may have access to greater financial, technical, marketing or other resources than we have. Consolidation in the Video industry has led to the acquisition of a number of our historic competitors over the last several years by private equity firms and by AWS. With respect to our Broadband business, certain competitors are substantially larger than us.
In addition, some of our larger competitors may have more long-standing and established relationships with certain domestic and foreign customers. Many of these large enterprises are in a better position to withstand any significant reduction in spending by customers in our markets and may be better able to navigate periods of market uncertainty, such as the uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia-Ukraine conflict and inflation. They often have broader product lines and market focus, and may not be as susceptible to downturns in a particular market. These competitors may also be able to bundle their products together to meet the needs of a particular customer, and may be capable of delivering more complete solutions than we are able to provide. To the extent large enterprises that currently do not compete directly with us choose to enter our markets by acquisition or otherwise, competition would likely intensify.
Further, some of our competitors have offered, and in the future may offer, their products at lower prices than we offer for our competing products or on more attractive financing or payment terms, which has in the past caused, and may in the future cause, us to lose sales opportunities and the resulting revenue or to reduce our prices in response to that competition. Also, some competitors that are smaller than us have engaged in, and may continue to engage in, aggressive price competition in order to gain customer traction and market share. Reductions in prices for any of our products could materially and adversely affect our operating margins and revenue.
Additionally, certain customers and potential customers have developed, and may continue to develop, their own solutions that may cause such customers or potential customers to not consider our product offerings or to displace our installed products with their own solutions. The growing availability of open source codecs and related software, as well as new server chipsets that incorporate encoding technology, has, in certain respects, lowered the barriers to entry for the video processing industry. The development of solutions by potential and existing customers and the reduction of the barriers to entry to enter the video processing industry could result in increased competition and adversely affect our results of operations and business.
If any of our competitors’ products or technologies were to become the industry standard, our business could be seriously harmed. If our competitors are successful in bringing their products to market earlier than us, or if these products are more technologically capable than ours, our revenue could be materially and adversely affected.
Our future growth depends on a number of video and broadband industry trends.
Technology, industry and regulatory trends and requirements may affect the growth of our business. These trends and requirements include the following:
convergence, whereby network operators bundle video, voice and data services to consumers, including mobile delivery options;
continued strong consumer demand for streaming video services;
continued adoption of public cloud SaaS platforms to stream video content to consumers, as well as for broadcast infrastructure workflows;
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continued growth in targeted advertising as a key revenue source for video streaming service providers;
the pace of adoption and deployment of high-bandwidth technology, such as DOCSIS 3.x, DOCSIS 4.0, next generation LTE and fiber-to-the-premises (“FTTP”);
the use of digital video by businesses, governments and educational institutions globally;
efforts by regulators and governments in the United States and internationally to encourage the adoption of broadband and digital technologies, including 5G broadband networks, as well as to regulate broadband access and delivery;
the need to develop partnerships with other companies involved in video infrastructure workflow and broadband services;
the extent and nature of regulatory attitudes towards issues such as network neutrality, competition between operators, access by third parties to networks of other operators, local franchising requirements for telcos to offer video, and other new services, such as mobile video; and
the outcome of disputes and negotiations between content owners and service providers regarding rights of service providers to store and distribute recorded broadcast content, which outcomes may drive adoption of one technology over another in some cases.
If we fail to recognize and respond to these trends, by timely developing products, features and services required by these trends, we are likely to lose revenue opportunities and our operating results, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
Our software-based broadband access product initiatives expose us to certain technology transition risks that may adversely impact our operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
We believe our CableOS software-based broadband access solutions, supporting centralized, DAA or hybrid configurations, will significantly reduce broadband operator headend costs and increase operational efficiency, and are an important step in operators’ transition to all-IP networks. If we are unsuccessful in continuing to innovate and develop and deploy our broadband access solutions in a timely manner, or are otherwise delayed in making our solutions available to our customers, our business may be adversely impacted, particularly if our competitors develop and market similar or superior products and solutions.
We believe our software-based broadband access solutions will continue to replace and make obsolete current CMTS solutions, which is a market our products have historically not addressed, as well as cable edge-QAM products. If demand for our software-based broadband access solutions is weaker than expected, our near and long-term operating results, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely impacted. Moreover, if competitors adapt new broadband industry technology standards into competing broadband access solutions faster than we do, or promulgate a new or competitive architecture for next-generation broadband access solutions that renders our CableOS solution obsolete, our business may be adversely impacted.
The sales cycle for our CableOS solutions tends to be long. For broadband operators, upgrading or expanding network infrastructure is complex and expensive, and investing in a CableOS solution is a significant strategic decision that may require considerable time to evaluate, test and qualify. Potential customers need to ensure our CableOS solution will interoperate with the various components of its existing network infrastructure, including third-party equipment, servers and software. In addition, since we are a relatively new entrant into the CMTS market, we need to demonstrate significant performance, functionality and/or cost advantages with our CableOS solutions that outweigh customer switching costs. If sales cycles are significantly longer than anticipated or we are otherwise unsuccessful in growing our CableOS sales, our operating results, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
Our operating results are likely to fluctuate significantly and, as a result, may fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts or investors, causing our stock price to decline.
Our operating results have fluctuated in the past and are likely to continue to fluctuate in the future, on an annual and a quarterly basis, as a result of several factors, many of which are outside of our control. Some of the factors that may cause these fluctuations include:
the level and timing of spending of our customers in the United States, Europe and in other markets;
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economic and financial conditions specific to each of the cable, satellite and telco, and broadcast and media industries, as well as general economic and financial market conditions, including the global economic impacts caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Russia-Ukraine conflict, rising tensions between China and Taiwan and China and the United States, inflation and government and business responses thereto as well as related supply chain and labor shortage issues;
changes in market acceptance of and demand for our products or our customers’ services or products;
the timing and amount of orders, especially from large individual transactions and transactions with our significant customers;
the mix of our products sold and the effect it has on gross margins;
the timing of revenue recognition, including revenue recognition on sales arrangements and from transactions with significant service and support components, which may span several quarters;
our transition to a SaaS subscription model for our Video business, which may cause near-term declines in revenue in our Video segment since, unlike Video appliance sales, SaaS revenue is recognized over the applicable subscription term based on service usage;
the timing of completion of our customers’ projects;
the length of each customer product upgrade cycle and the volume of purchases during the cycle;
competitive market conditions, including pricing actions by our competitors;
the level and mix of our domestic and international revenue;
new product introductions by our competitors or by us;
uncertainty in the European Union due to unrest or violence in Ukraine that the ongoing military conflict with the Russian Federation have caused, which could adversely affect our results, financial condition and prospects;
changes in domestic and international regulatory environments affecting our business;
the evaluation of new services, new standards and system architectures by our customers;
the cost and timely availability to us of components, subassemblies and modules;
the mix of our customer base, by industry and size, and sales channels;
changes in our operating and extraordinary expenses;
the timing of acquisitions and dispositions by us and the financial impact of such transactions;
impairment of our goodwill and intangibles;
the impact of litigation, such as related litigation expenses and settlement costs;
write-downs of inventory and investments;
changes in our effective federal tax rate, including as a result of changes in our valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets, and changes in our effective state tax rates, including as a result of apportionment;
changes to tax rules related to the deferral of foreign earnings and compliance with foreign tax rules;
the impact of applicable accounting guidance on accounting for uncertainty in income taxes that requires us to establish reserves for uncertain tax positions and accrue potential tax penalties and interest; and
the impact of applicable accounting guidance on business combinations that requires us to record charges for certain acquisition related costs and expenses and generally to expense restructuring costs associated with a business combination subsequent to the acquisition date.
The timing of deployment of our products by our customers can be subject to a number of other risks, including the availability of skilled engineering and technical personnel, the availability of third-party equipment and services, our customers’ ability to negotiate and enter into rights agreements with video content owners that provide our customers with the right to deliver certain video content, and our customers’ need for local franchise and licensing approvals.
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We often recognize a substantial portion of our quarterly revenue in the last month of the quarter. We establish our expenditure levels for product development and other operating expenses based on projected revenue levels for a specified period, and expenses are relatively fixed in the short term. Accordingly, even small variations in the timing of revenue, particularly from relatively large individual transactions, can cause significant fluctuations in operating results in a particular quarter.
As a result of these factors and other factors, our operating results in one or more future periods may fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts or investors. In that event, the trading price of our common stock would likely decline.
We purchase several key components, subassemblies and modules used in the manufacture or integration of our products from sole or limited sources, and we rely on contract manufacturers and other subcontractors.
Our reliance on sole or limited suppliers, particularly foreign suppliers, and our reliance on contractors for manufacturing and installation of our products, involves several risks, including a potential inability to obtain an adequate supply of required components, subassemblies or modules; reduced control over costs, quality and timely delivery of components, subassemblies or modules; supplier discontinuation of components, subassemblies or modules we require; and timely installation of products. In addition, our financial results may be impacted by tariffs imposed by the United States on goods from other countries and tariffs imposed by other countries on U.S. goods. If any such tariffs are imposed on products or components that we import, including those obtained from a sole supplier or a limited group of suppliers, we could experience reduced revenues or may have to raise our prices, either of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
These risks could be heightened during a substantial economic slowdown because our suppliers and subcontractors are more likely to experience adverse changes in their financial condition and operations during such a period. Further, these risks could materially and adversely affect our business if one of our sole sources, or a sole source of one of our suppliers or contract manufacturers, is adversely affected by a natural disaster or the outbreak of disease, epidemics and other pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which has adversely impacted and may continue to adversely impact our supply chain. These risks could also be heightened by geopolitical factors. For example, a number of the components we use in our products are sourced through Taiwan. Deterioration of relations between Taiwan and China and the United States, the resulting actions taken by any of these parties, and other factors affecting the political or economic conditions of Taiwan in the future, could adversely impact our supply chain, international sales and operations. While we expend resources to qualify additional component sources, consolidation of suppliers and the small number of viable alternatives have limited the results of these efforts. Managing our supplier and contractor relationships is particularly difficult during time periods in which we introduce new products and during time periods in which demand for our products is increasing, especially if demand increases more quickly than we expect.
Plexus Services Corp. (“Plexus”), which manufactures our products at its facilities in Malaysia, currently serves as our primary contract manufacturer, and currently accounts for a majority, by dollar amount, of the products that we purchase from our contract manufacturers. Most of the products manufactured by our French and Israeli operations are outsourced to another third-party manufacturer in France and Israel, respectively. From time to time we assess our relationship with our contract manufacturers, and we do not generally maintain long-term agreements with any of our suppliers or contract manufacturers. Our agreement with Plexus has automatic annual renewals, unless prior notice is given by either party, and has been automatically renewed for a term expiring in October 2023.
Difficulties in managing relationships with any of our current contract manufacturers, particularly Plexus, that manufacture our products off-shore, or any of our suppliers of key components, subassemblies and modules used in our products, could impede our ability to meet our customers’ requirements and adversely affect our operating results. An inability to obtain adequate and timely deliveries of our products or any materials used in our products, or the inability of any of our contract manufacturers to scale their production to meet demand, such as the inability of certain of our contract manufacturers to operate at capacity for periods of time due to the COVID-19 pandemic, or any other circumstance that would require us to seek alternative sources of supply, had negatively impacted and could continue to negatively affect our ability to ship our products on a timely basis, which could damage relationships with current and prospective customers and harm our business and materially and adversely affect our revenue and other operating results. Furthermore, if we fail to meet customers’ supply expectations, our revenue would be adversely affected and we may lose sales opportunities, both short and long term, which could materially and adversely affect our business and our operating results, financial condition and cash flows. Increases, from time to time, in demand on our suppliers and subcontractors from our customers or from other parties have, on occasion, caused delays in the availability of certain components and products. In response, we may increase our inventories of certain components and products and expedite shipments of our products when necessary. These actions could increase our costs and could also increase our risk of holding obsolete or excess inventory, which, despite our use of a demand order fulfillment model, could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.

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Operational Risks
We rely on resellers, value-added resellers and systems integrators for a significant portion of our revenue, and disruptions to, or our failure to develop and manage our relationships with these customers or the processes and procedures that support them could adversely affect our business.
We generate a significant percentage of our revenue through sales to resellers, value-added resellers (“VARs”) and systems integrators that assist us with fulfillment or installation obligations. We expect that these sales will continue to generate a significant percentage of our revenue in the future. Accordingly, our future success is highly dependent upon establishing and maintaining successful relationships with a variety of channel partners.
We generally have no long-term contracts or minimum purchase commitments with any of our reseller, VAR or system integrator customers, and our contracts with these parties do not prohibit them from purchasing or offering products or services that compete with ours. Our competitors may provide incentives to any of our reseller, VAR or systems integrator customers to favor their products or, in effect, to prevent or reduce sales of our products. Any of our reseller, VAR or systems integrator customers may independently choose not to purchase or offer our products. Many of our resellers, and some of our VARs and system integrators are small, are based in a variety of international locations, and may have relatively unsophisticated processes and limited financial resources to conduct their business. Any significant disruption of our sales to these customers, including as a result of the inability or unwillingness of these customers to continue purchasing our products, or their failure to properly manage their business with respect to the purchase of, and payment for, our products, or their ability to comply with our policies and procedures as well as applicable laws, could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, our failure to continue to establish or maintain successful relationships with reseller, VAR and systems integrator customers could likewise materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
We face risks associated with having outsourced engineering resources located in Ukraine.
We outsource a portion of our research and development and product support activities to our third-party partner, GlobalLogic, a Hitachi group company. Through GlobalLogic, we have a significant number of engineering resources located in Kyiv, Ukraine that are dedicated to our Broadband and Video business segments. Political, social and economic instability and unrest or violence in Ukraine from the ongoing military conflict with the Russian Federation have caused, and may continue to cause, disruptions to the business and operations of GlobalLogic, which could slow or delay the development work our outsourced engineering teams are undertaking for us. Any escalation of political tensions, military activity, instability, unrest or conflict could limit or prevent our employees from traveling to, from, or within Ukraine to direct and coordinate our outsourced engineering teams, or cause us to shift all or portions of the development work occurring in Ukraine, and/or cause GlobalLogic to relocate personnel to other locations or countries pursuant to its business continuity plans. Any resulting delays could negatively impact our product development efforts, operating results and our business. In addition, increased costs associated with managing or relocating our outsourced engineering teams in Ukraine, or engaging with alternative engineering resources outside of Ukraine, could negatively impact our operating results and financial condition.
We may not be able to effectively manage our operations.
As of December 31, 2022, we had 964 employees in our international operations, representing approximately 72% of our worldwide workforce. In recent years, we have expanded our international operations significantly. Our ability to manage our business effectively in the future, including with respect to any future growth, our operation as both a hardware and increasingly software- and SaaS-centric business, the integration of any acquisition efforts such as our acquisition of TVN, and the breadth of our international operations, will require us to train, motivate and manage our employees successfully, to attract and integrate new employees into our overall operations, to retain key employees and to continue to improve and evolve our operational, financial and management systems. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in any of these efforts, and our failure to effectively manage our operations could have a material and adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.
We face risks associated with having facilities and employees located in Israel.
As of December 31, 2022, we maintained facilities in Israel with a total of 251 employees, or approximately 19% of our worldwide workforce. Our employees in Israel engage in a number of activities, for both our Video and Broadband business segments, including research and development, product development, product management, supply chain management for certain product lines and sales activities.
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As such, we are directly affected by the political, economic and military conditions affecting Israel. Any significant conflict involving Israel could have a direct effect on our business or that of our Israeli contract manufacturers, in the form of physical damage or injury, restrictions from traveling or reluctance to travel to from or within Israel by our Israeli and other employees or those of our subcontractors, or the loss of Israeli employees to active military duty. Most of our employees in Israel are currently obligated to perform annual reserve duty in the Israel Defense Forces, and approximately 8% of those employees were called for active military duty in 2022. In the event that more of our employees are called to active duty, certain of our research and development activities may be significantly delayed and adversely affected. Further, the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its trading partners, as a result of terrorist attacks or hostilities, conflicts between Israel and any other Middle Eastern country or organization, or any other cause, could significantly harm our business. Additionally, current or future tensions or conflicts in the Middle East could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
In order to manage our growth, we must be successful in addressing management succession issues and attracting and retaining qualified personnel.
Our future success will depend, to a significant extent, on the ability of our management to operate effectively, both individually and as a group. We must successfully manage transition and replacement issues that may result from the departure or retirement of members of our executive management. For example, our Chief Financial Officer recently announced his decision to resign effective as of March 3, 2023 and we have appointed an interim Chief Financial Officer while we conduct a search for a permanent successor. Any significant leadership change or senior management transition involves inherent risks and any failure to ensure timely and suitable replacements and smooth transition could hinder our strategic planning, business execution, and future performance. We cannot provide assurances that any current or future changes of management personnel in the future will not cause disruption to operations or customer relationships or a decline in our operating results.
We are also dependent on our ability to retain and motivate our existing highly qualified personnel, in addition to attracting new highly qualified personnel. Competition for qualified management, technical and other personnel is often intense, particularly in Silicon Valley, Israel and Hong Kong where we have significant research and development activities, and we may not be successful in attracting and retaining such personnel. Competitors and others have in the past attempted, and are likely in the future to attempt, to recruit our employees. While our employees are required to sign standard agreements concerning confidentiality, non-solicitation and ownership of inventions, other than in Israel, we generally do not have non-competition agreements with our personnel. The loss of the services of any of our key personnel, the inability to attract or retain highly qualified personnel in the future or delays in hiring such personnel, particularly senior management and engineers and other technical personnel, could negatively affect our business and operating results. We may need to increase our existing compensation levels in certain markets or for certain roles in response to competition, rising inflation or labor shortages, which may increase our operating costs. Furthermore, a certain portion of our personnel in the United States is comprised of foreign nationals whose ability to work for us depends on obtaining the necessary visas. Our ability to hire and retain foreign nationals in the United States, and their ability to remain and work in the United States, is affected by various laws and regulations, including limitations on the availability of visas. Changes in U.S. laws or regulations affecting the availability of visas have, and may continue to adversely affect, our ability to hire or retain key personnel and as a result may impair our operations.
Our products include third-party technology and intellectual property, and our inability to acquire new technologies or use third-party technology in the future could harm our business.
In order to successfully develop and market certain of our planned products, we may be required to enter into technology development or licensing agreements with third parties. Although companies with technology useful to us are often willing to enter into technology development or licensing agreements with respect to such technology, we cannot provide assurances that such agreements may be negotiated on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. The failure to enter, or a delay in entering, into such technology development or licensing agreements, when necessary or desirable, could limit our ability to develop and market new products and could materially and adversely affect our business.
We incorporate certain third-party technologies, including software programs, into our products, and, as noted, intend to utilize additional third-party technologies in the future. In addition, the technologies that we license may not operate properly or as specified, and we may not be able to secure alternatives in a timely manner, either of which could harm our business. We could face delays in product releases until alternative technology can be identified, licensed or developed, and integrated into our products, if we are able to do so at all. These delays, or a failure to secure or develop adequate technology, could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
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Cybersecurity incidents, including data security breaches or computer viruses, could harm our business by disrupting our business operations, compromising our products and services, damaging our reputation or exposing us to liability.
Cyber criminals and hackers may attempt to penetrate our network security, misappropriate our proprietary information or cause business interruptions. Because the techniques used by such computer programmers to access or sabotage networks change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. In the past, we have faced compromises to our network security, and companies are facing additional attacks as workforces have become more distributed as a result of remote and hybrid working arrangements stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic. While we have invested in and continue to update our network security and cybersecurity infrastructure and systems, if our cybersecurity systems fail to protect against unauthorized access, sophisticated cyber-attacks, phishing schemes, ransomware, data protection breaches, computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering or human error, our ability to conduct our business effectively could be damaged in a number of ways, including:
our intellectual property and other proprietary data, or financial assets, could be stolen;
our ability to manage and conduct our business operations could be seriously disrupted;
defects and security vulnerabilities could be introduced into our product, software and SaaS offerings, thereby damaging the reputation and perceived reliability and security of our products; and
personally identifiable data of our customers, employees and business partners could be compromised.
Should any of the above events occur, our reputation, competitive position and business could be significantly harmed, and we could be subject to claims for liability from customers, third parties and governmental authorities. Additionally, we could incur significant costs in order to upgrade our cybersecurity systems and remediate damages. Consequently, our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, our business operations utilize and rely upon numerous third-party vendors, manufacturers, solution providers, partners and consultants, and any failure of such third parties’ cybersecurity measures could materially and adversely affect or disrupt our business.
Our operating results could be adversely affected by natural disasters affecting us or impacting our third-party manufacturers, suppliers, resellers or customers.
Our corporate headquarters is located in California, which is prone to earthquakes. In addition, climate change is contributing to an increase in erratic weather patterns globally and intensifying the impact of certain types of catastrophes, such as floods, wildfires and droughts. We have employees, consultants and contractors located in regions and countries around the world. In the event that any of our business, sales or research and development centers or offices in the United States or internationally are adversely affected by an earthquake, flood, wildfire or by any other natural disaster, we may sustain damage to our operations and properties, which could cause a sustained interruption or loss of affected operations, and cause us to suffer significant financial losses.
We rely on third-party contract manufacturers for the production of our products. Any significant disruption in the business or operations of such manufacturers or of their or our suppliers could adversely impact our business. Our principal contract manufacturers and several of their and our suppliers and our resellers have operations in locations that are subject to natural disasters, such as severe weather, tsunamis, floods, fires and earthquakes, which could disrupt their operations and, in turn, our operations.
In addition, if there is a natural disaster in any of the locations in which our significant customers are located, we face the risk that our customers may incur losses or sustained business interruption, or both, which may materially impair their ability to continue their purchase of products from us. Accordingly, natural disaster in one of the geographies in which we, or our third-party manufacturers, their or our suppliers or our customers, operate could have a material and adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.
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Financial, Transactional and Tax Risks
We may need additional capital in the future and may not be able to secure adequate funds at all or on terms acceptable to us.
We engage in the design, development and manufacture and sale of a variety of video and broadband products and system solutions, which has required, and will continue to require, significant research and development expenditures.
We are monitoring and managing our cash position in light of ongoing market conditions due to COVID-19, the Russia-Ukraine conflict and related macroeconomic conditions. We believe that our existing cash of approximately $89.6 million at December 31, 2022 will satisfy our cash requirements for at least the next 12 months. However, we may need to raise additional funds to take advantage of presently unanticipated strategic opportunities, satisfy our other cash requirements from time to time, or strengthen our financial position. Our ability to raise funds may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including factors beyond our control, such as weakness in the economic conditions in markets in which we sell our products and continued uncertainty in financial, capital and credit markets. There can be no assurance that equity or debt financing will be available to us on reasonable terms, if at all, when and if it is needed.
We may raise additional financing through public or private equity or convertible debt offerings, debt financings, or corporate partnership or licensing arrangements. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities or convertible debt, our stockholders may experience dilution, and any new equity or convertible debt securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to holders of our common stock. Further, volatility in equity capital markets may adversely affect market prices of our common stock. This may materially and adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital through public or private equity offerings. To the extent that we raise additional funds through collaboration and licensing arrangements, it may be necessary to relinquish some rights to our technologies or products, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. To the extent we raise capital through debt financing arrangements, we may be required to pledge assets or enter into covenants that could restrict our operations or our ability to incur further indebtedness and the interest on such debt may adversely affect our operating results. Further, rising interest rates may reduce our access to debt financing, which may adversely affect our future business plans and expected growth, and would increase the cost of long-term fixed rate and short-term variable rate borrowings, which could reduce our earnings.
If adequate capital is not available, or is not available on reasonable terms, when needed, we may not be able to take advantage of acquisition or other market opportunities, to timely develop new products, or to otherwise respond to competitive pressures.
Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including our 2.00% Convertible Senior Notes due in 2024 (the “Notes”), or to make cash payments in connection with any conversion of the Notes or in connection with any repurchase of Notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change before the maturity date at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes to be repurchased, plus any accrued and unpaid interest thereon, as set forth in the indenture governing the Notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness, including the Notes will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations, including the Notes.
In addition, our ability to repurchase the Notes or to pay cash upon conversions of the Notes or at their maturity may be limited by law, regulatory authority, or agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase the Notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture governing the Notes or to pay cash upon conversions of the Notes or at their maturity as required by the indenture governing the Notes would constitute a default under the indenture. A default under the indenture, or the fundamental change itself, could also lead to a default under agreements governing our future indebtedness. Moreover, the occurrence of a fundamental change under the indenture governing the Notes could constitute an event of default under any such agreement. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase the Notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.
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Despite our current debt levels, we may still incur substantially more debt or take other actions which would intensify the risks discussed above.
Despite our current consolidated debt levels, we and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional debt in the future, subject to the restrictions contained in our debt instruments, some of which may be secured debt. We are not restricted under the terms of the indenture governing the Notes from incurring additional debt, securing existing or future debt, recapitalizing our debt or taking a number of other actions that are not limited by the terms of the indenture governing the Notes that could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on our debt (including the Notes) when due. In addition, the Credit Agreement we entered into with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as lender, and Harmonic International GmbH, as co-borrower, on December 19, 2019 and most recently amended in October 2022, permits us to incur certain additional indebtedness and grant certain liens on our assets that could intensify the risks discussed above.
The conditional conversion feature of the Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
In the event the conditional conversion feature of the Notes is triggered, holders of Notes will be entitled under the indenture governing the Notes to convert the Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021, the Company made an irrevocable election under the terms of the indenture governing the Notes to settle the principal portion of the Notes solely with cash and may pay or deliver, as the case may be, any conversion value greater than the principal amount in cash, shares of common stock or a combination thereof, at the Company’s election. Accordingly, if one or more holders elect to convert their Notes, we would be required to settle the principal portion of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
We have made, and may continue to make, acquisitions, and any acquisition could disrupt our operations, cause dilution to our stockholders and materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.
As part of our business strategy, from time to time we have acquired, and we may continue to acquire, businesses, technologies, assets and product lines that we believe complement or expand our existing business. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including the following:
unanticipated costs or delays associated with an acquisition;
difficulties in the assimilation and integration of acquired operations, technologies and/or products;
potential disruption of our business and the diversion of management’s attention from the regular operations of the business during the acquisition process;
the challenges of managing a larger and more geographically widespread operation and product portfolio after the closing of the acquisition;
potential adverse effects on new and existing business relationships with suppliers, contract manufacturers, resellers, partners and customers;
compliance with regulatory requirements, such as local employment regulations and organized labor in France;
risks associated with entering markets in which we may have no or limited prior experience;
the potential loss of key employees of acquired businesses and our own business as a result of integration;
difficulties in bringing acquired products and businesses into compliance with applicable legal requirements in jurisdictions in which we operate and sell products;
impact of known potential liabilities or unknown liabilities, including litigation and infringement claims, associated with companies we acquire;
substantial charges for acquisition costs or for the amortization of certain purchased intangible assets, deferred stock compensation or similar items;
substantial impairments to goodwill or intangible assets in the event that an acquisition proves to be less valuable than the price we paid for it;
difficulties in establishing and maintaining uniform financial and other standards, controls, procedures and policies;
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delays in realizing, or failure to realize, the anticipated benefits of an acquisition; and
the possibility that any acquisition may be viewed negatively by our customers or investors or the financial markets.
Competition within our industry for acquisitions of businesses, technologies, assets and product lines has been, and is likely to continue to be, intense. As such, even if we are able to identify an acquisition that we would like to consummate, we may not be able to complete the acquisition on commercially reasonable terms or because the target chooses to be acquired by another company. Furthermore, in the event that we are able to identify and consummate any future acquisitions, we may, in each of those acquisitions:
issue equity securities which would dilute current stockholders’ percentage ownership;
incur substantial debt to finance the acquisition or assume substantial debt in the acquisition;
incur significant acquisition-related expenses;
assume substantial liabilities, contingent or otherwise; or
expend significant cash.
These financing activities or expenditures could materially and adversely affect our operating results, cash flows and financial condition or the price of our common stock. Alternatively, due to difficulties in the capital or credit markets at the time, we may be unable to secure capital necessary to complete an acquisition on reasonable terms, or at all. Moreover, even if we were to obtain benefits from acquisitions in the form of increased revenue and earnings per share, there may be a delay between the time the expenses associated with an acquisition are incurred and the time we recognize such benefits.
In addition to the risks outlined above, if we are unable to successfully receive payment of any significant portion of our existing French R&D credit receivables from the French authority as expected, or are unable to successfully apply for or otherwise obtain the financial benefit of new French R&D credits in future years, our ability to achieve the anticipated benefits of the acquisition as well as our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
As of December 31, 2022, we had approximately $237.7 million of goodwill recorded on our balance sheet associated with prior acquisitions. In the event we determine that our goodwill is impaired, we would be required to write down all or a portion of such goodwill, which could result in a material non-cash charge to our results of operations in the period in which such write-down occurs.
If we are unable to successfully address one or more of these risks, our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
We may sell one or more of our product lines, from time to time, as a result of our evaluation of our products and markets, and any such divestiture could adversely affect our continuing business and our expenses, revenues, results of operation, cash flows and financial position.
We periodically evaluate our various product lines and may, as a result, consider the divestiture of one or more of those product lines. We have sold product lines in the past, and any prior or future divestiture could adversely affect our continuing business and expenses, revenues, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.
Divestitures of product lines have inherent risks, including the expense of selling the product line, the possibility that any anticipated sale will not occur, delays in closing any sale, the risk of lower-than-expected proceeds from the sale of the divested business, unexpected costs associated with the separation of the business to be sold from the seller’s information technology and other operating systems, and potential post-closing claims for indemnification or breach of transition services obligations of the seller. Expected cost savings, which are offset by revenue losses from divested businesses, may also be difficult to achieve or maximize due to the seller’s fixed cost structure, and a seller may experience varying success in reducing fixed costs or transferring liabilities previously associated with the divested business.
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The nature of our business requires the application of complex revenue and expense recognition rules and the current legislative and regulatory environment affecting generally accepted accounting principles is uncertain. Significant changes in current principles could affect our financial statements going forward and changes in financial accounting standards or practices may cause adverse, unexpected financial reporting fluctuations and harm our operating results.
United States generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”) are subject to interpretation by the Financial Standards Accounting Board (“FASB”), the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. We are also subject to evolving rules and regulations of the countries in which we do business. Changes to accounting standards or interpretations thereof may result in different accounting principles under U.S. GAAP that have a significant effect on our reported financial results and require us to incur costs and expenses in order to comply with the updated standards or interpretations.
In addition, we have in the past and may in the future need to modify our customer contracts, accounting systems and processes when we adopt future or proposed changes in accounting principles. The cost and effect of these changes may negatively impact our results of operations during the periods of transition.
Fluctuations in our future effective tax rates could affect our future operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
We are required to periodically review our deferred tax assets and determine whether, based on available evidence, a valuation allowance is necessary. The realization of our deferred tax assets, which are predominantly in the United States, is dependent upon the generation of sufficient U.S. and foreign taxable income in the future to offset these assets. Based on our evaluation, we recorded a net increase in valuation allowance of $10.8 million and $0.3 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively, against the net deferred tax assets. There was no valuation allowance release in 2022. The increases in valuation allowance in 2021 was offset by the valuation allowance release of $9.6 million related to deferred taxes for certain foreign jurisdictions. The Company reduced its valuation allowance in 2021 based on continued improved operating results over the past few years and expectations about generating foreign taxable income in the future. Changes in the amount of the valuation allowance in the U.S. and in foreign jurisdictions could result in a material non-cash expense or benefit in the period in which the valuation allowance is adjusted and our results of operations could be materially affected.
The calculation of tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex global tax regulations. We recognize potential liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues in the U.S. and other tax jurisdictions based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional taxes will be due. In the event we determine that it is appropriate to create a reserve or increase an existing reserve for any such potential liabilities, the amount of the additional reserve will be charged as an expense in the period in which it is determined. If payment of these amounts ultimately proves to be unnecessary, the reversal of the liabilities would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary. If the estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate tax assessment for the applicable period, a further charge to expense in the period such shortfall is determined would result. Either such charge to expense could have a material and adverse effect on our operating results for the applicable period.
Our future effective income tax rates could be adversely affected if tax authorities challenge our international tax structure or if our relative mix of U.S. and international income changes for any reason. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that our effective income tax rate will be less than the U.S. federal statutory rate in future periods.
We are subject to taxation-related risks in multiple jurisdictions, and the adoption and interpretation of new tax legislation, tax regulations, tax rulings, or exposure to additional tax liabilities could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Tax laws are regularly re-examined and evaluated globally. New laws and interpretations of the law are taken into account for financial statement purposes in the quarter or year that they become applicable. Tax authorities are increasingly scrutinizing the tax positions of multinational companies. If U.S. or other foreign tax authorities change applicable tax laws, or if there is a change in interpretation of existing law, our overall liability could increase, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be harmed.
In December 2017, the legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Tax Act) was enacted, which contains significant changes to U.S. tax law, including a reduction in the U.S. corporate tax rate and a transition to a new partial territorial system of taxation. The primary impact of the Tax Act on our provision for (benefit from) income taxes was a reduction of the future tax benefits of our deferred tax assets as a result of the reduction in the corporate income tax rate.
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In addition, as of January 1, 2022, the Tax Act requires research and experimental expenditures attributable to research conducted within the United States to be capitalized and amortized ratably over a five-year period. Any such expenditures attributable to research conducted outside the United States must be capitalized and amortized over a 15-year period. The Internal Revenue Service has not issued Treasury Regulations which provide guidance on how to apply this new tax law. If or when Treasury Regulations are released, it may impact the Company’s estimate of capitalized costs or the Company’s current interpretation of the tax law. There continues to be legislative discussions about removing this capitalization requirement in 2023. It is currently unlikely there will be any retroactive application to the 2022 capitalization requirement. Any change in tax law will be accounted for in the period of enactment.
Certain provisions of the Tax Act were modified by legislation enacted in March 2020, entitled the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the CARES Act), and the impact of both the Tax Act and the CARES Act is subject to ongoing technical guidance and accounting interpretation, which we will continue to monitor and assess. Further, the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (the “IRA”), has become effective as of January 1, 2023, which, among other things, imposes a one-percent non-deductible excise tax on certain repurchases of stock that are made by U.S. publicly traded corporations on or after January 1, 2023, which may affect our share repurchase program.
In addition, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the European Union, as well as a number of other countries and organizations have recently enacted new laws, and proposed or recommended changes to existing tax laws, that may increase our tax obligations in many countries where we do business or require us to change the manner in which we operate our business. As we expand the scale of our business activities, any changes in U.S. or foreign tax laws that apply to such activities may increase our worldwide effective tax rate and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Legal, Regulatory and Compliance Risks
We or our customers may face intellectual property infringement claims from third parties.
Our industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and related litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. In particular, leading companies in the telecommunications industry have extensive patent portfolios. Also, patent infringement claims and litigation by entities that purchase or control patents, but do not produce goods or services covered by the claims of such patents (so-called “non-practicing entities” or “NPEs”), have increased rapidly over the last decade or so. From time to time, third parties, including NPEs, have asserted, and may assert in the future, patent, copyright, trademark and other intellectual property rights against us or our customers, and have initiated audits to determine whether we have missed royalty payments for technology that we license. Our suppliers and their customers, including us, may have similar claims asserted against them. A number of third parties, including companies with greater financial and other resources than us, have asserted patent rights to technologies that are important to us.
Any intellectual property litigation, regardless of its outcome, could result in substantial expense and significant diversion of the efforts of our management and technical personnel. An adverse determination in any such proceeding could subject us to significant liabilities and temporary or permanent injunctions and require us to seek licenses from third parties or pay royalties that may be substantial. Furthermore, necessary licenses may not be available on terms satisfactory to us, or at all. An unfavorable outcome on any such litigation matter could require that we pay substantial damages, could require that we pay ongoing royalty payments, or could prohibit us from selling certain of our products. Any such outcome could have a material and adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
Our suppliers and customers may have intellectual property claims relating to our products asserted against them. We have agreed to indemnify some of our suppliers and most of our customers for patent infringement relating to our products. The scope of this indemnity varies, but, in some instances, includes indemnification for damages and expenses (including reasonable attorney’s fees) incurred by the supplier or customer in connection with such claims. If a supplier or a customer seeks to enforce a claim for indemnification against us, we could incur significant costs defending such claim, the underlying claim or both. An adverse determination in either such proceeding could subject us to significant liabilities and have a material and adverse effect on our operating results, cash flows and financial condition.
We may be the subject of litigation which, if adversely determined, could harm our business and operating results.
We may be subject to claims arising in the normal course of business. The costs of defending any litigation, whether in cash expenses or in management time, could harm our business and materially and adversely affect our operating results and cash flows. An unfavorable outcome on any litigation matter could require that we pay substantial damages, or, in connection with any intellectual property infringement claims, could require that we pay ongoing royalty payments or prohibit us from selling certain of our products. In addition, we may decide to settle any litigation, which could cause us to incur significant settlement costs. A settlement or an unfavorable outcome on any litigation matter could have a material and adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
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Our failure to adequately protect our proprietary rights and data may adversely affect us.
At December 31, 2022, we held 121 issued U.S. patents and 49 issued foreign patents, and had 56 patent applications pending. Although we attempt to protect our intellectual property rights through patents, trademarks, copyrights, licensing arrangements, maintaining certain technology as trade secrets and other measures, we can give no assurances that any patent, trademark, copyright or other intellectual property rights owned by us will not be invalidated, circumvented or challenged, that such intellectual property rights will provide competitive advantages to us, or that any of our pending or future patent applications will be issued with the scope of the claims sought by us, if at all. We can give no assurances that others will not develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technologies, duplicate our technologies or design around the patents that we own. In addition, effective patent, copyright and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited in certain foreign countries in which we do business or may do business in the future.
We may enter into confidentiality or license agreements with our employees, consultants, and vendors and our customers, as needed, and generally limit access to, and distribution of, our proprietary information. Nevertheless, we cannot provide assurances that the steps taken by us will prevent misappropriation of our technology. In addition, we have taken in the past, and may take in the future, legal action to enforce our patents and other intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of management time and other resources, and could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
Our use of open source software in some of our products may expose us to certain risks.
Some of our products contain software modules licensed for use from third-party authors under open source licenses. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the type of open source software we use. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain of the open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. This could allow our competitors to create similar products with lower development effort and in less time and ultimately could result in a loss of product sales for us.
Although we monitor our use of open source closely, it is possible our past, present or future use of open source has triggered or may trigger the foregoing requirements. Furthermore, the terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. In such event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our products, to re-engineer our products or to discontinue the sale of our products in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis, any of which could materially and adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
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We are subject to import and export control and trade and economic sanction laws and regulations that could subject us to liability or impair our ability to compete in international markets.
Our products are subject to U.S. export control laws, and may be exported outside the United States only with the required export license or through an export license exception, in most cases because we incorporate encryption technology into certain of our products. We are also subject to U.S. trade and economic sanction regulations which include prohibitions on the sale or supply of certain products and services to the United States embargoed or sanctioned countries, governments, persons and entities. In addition, various countries regulate the import of certain technology and have enacted laws that could limit our ability to distribute our products, or could limit our customers’ ability to implement our products, in those countries. Although we take precautions and have processes in place to prevent our products and services from being provided in violation of such laws, our products may have been in the past, and could in the future be, provided inadvertently in violation of such laws, despite the precautions we take. In March 2020, we received an administrative subpoena from the U.S. Treasury Department’s office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) requesting information about transactions involving Iran. The transactions were by the French company TVN, which we acquired in early 2016. Pursuant to regulations that remained in place until 2018, foreign subsidiaries of U.S. companies were allowed to engage in transactions with Iran if certain requirements were met. In February 2023, OFAC notified us that it had completed its review of these matters and closed its review with the issuance of a Cautionary Letter. While OFAC did not assess any penalties, the Cautionary Letter does not preclude OFAC from taking future enforcement actions if additional information warrants renewed attention. Furthermore, OFAC may consider our regulatory history, including this subpoena, our disclosures and Cautionary Letter, if we are involved in future enforcement cases for failure to comply with export control laws and regulations. If we are found to have violated U.S. export control laws as a result of future investigations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export privileges, monetary penalties, and, in extreme cases, imprisonment of responsible employees for knowing and willful violations of these laws which could lead to penalties, reputational harm, loss of access to certain markets, or otherwise.
In addition, we may be subject to customs duties that could have a significant adverse impact on our operating results or, if we are able to pass on the related costs in any particular situation, would increase the cost of the related product to our customers. As a result, the future imposition of significant increases in the level of customs duties or the creation of import quotas on our products in Europe or in other jurisdictions, or any of the limitations on international sales described above, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows. Further, some of our customers in Europe have been, or are being, audited by local governmental authorities regarding the tariff classifications used for importation of our products. Import duties and tariffs vary by country and a different tariff classification for any of our products may result in higher duties or tariffs, which could have an adverse impact on our operating results and potentially increase the cost of the related products to our customers.
Our business and industry are subject to various laws and regulations that could adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.
Our business and industry are regulated under various federal, state, local and international laws. For example, we are subject to environmental regulations such as the European Union’s Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”) and Restriction on the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“RoHS”) directives and similar legislation enacted in other jurisdictions worldwide. Our failure to comply with these laws could result in our being directly or indirectly liable for costs, fines or penalties and third-party claims, and could jeopardize our ability to conduct business in such regions and countries. We expect that our operations will be affected by other new environmental laws and regulations on an ongoing basis. Although we cannot predict the ultimate impact of any such new laws and regulations, they would likely result in additional costs, and could require that we redesign or change how we manufacture our products, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
We are subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 which, among other things, requires an annual review and evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting. If we conclude in future periods that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to provide an unqualified attestation as of future year-ends, we may incur substantial additional costs in an effort to correct such problems, and investors may lose confidence in our financial statements, and our stock price may decrease in the short term, until we correct such problems, and perhaps in the long term, as well.
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We are subject to requirements under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 that require us to conduct research, disclose, and report whether or not our products contain certain conflict minerals sourced from the Democratic Republic of Congo or its surrounding countries. The implementation of these requirements could adversely affect the sourcing, availability, and pricing of the materials used in the manufacture of components used in our products. In addition, we may incur certain additional costs to comply with the disclosure requirements, including costs related to conducting diligence procedures to determine the sources of conflict minerals that may be used or necessary to the production of our products and, if applicable, potential changes to products, processes or sources of supply as a consequence of such verification activities. It is also possible that we may face reputational harm if we determine that certain of our products contain minerals not determined to be conflict-free and/or we are unable to alter our products, processes or sources of supply to avoid such materials.
Changes in telecommunications legislation and regulations in the United States and other countries could affect our sales and the revenue we are able to derive from our products. In particular, on December 14, 2017, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) voted to repeal the “net neutrality” rules and return to a “light-touch” regulatory framework. The FCC’s new rules, which took effect in June 2018, granted providers of broadband internet access services greater freedom to make changes to their services, including, potentially, changes that may discriminate against or otherwise harm our business. However, a number of parties have appealed these rules, which appeals are currently being reviewed by the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals; thus the future impact of the FCC's repeal and any changes thereto remains uncertain. Additionally, on September 30, 2018, California enacted the California Internet Consumer Protection and Net Neutrality Act of 2018. Since the FCC repealed its nationwide regulations, seven states have also enacted a state-level net neutrality law and a number of other states are considering legislation or executive actions that would regulate the conduct of broadband providers. We cannot predict whether the FCC order or state initiatives will be modified, overturned, or vacated by legal action of the court, federal legislation, or the FCC. The repeal of the net neutrality rules or other regulations dealing with access by competitors to the networks of incumbent operators could slow or stop infrastructure and services investments or expansion by service providers. Increased regulation of our customers’ pricing or service offerings could limit their investments and, consequently, revenue from our products. The impact of new or revised legislation or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
We depend significantly on our international revenue and are subject to the risks associated with international operations, including those of our resellers, contract manufacturers and outsourcing partners, which may negatively affect our operating results.
Revenue derived from customers outside of the United States in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020 represented approximately 37%, 44% and 49% of our revenue, respectively. Although no assurance can be given with respect to international sales growth in any one or more regions, we expect that international revenue will likely continue to represent, from year to year, a majority, and potentially increasing, percentage of our annual revenue for the foreseeable future. A significant percentage of our revenue is generated from sales to resellers, VARs and systems integrators, particularly in emerging market countries. Furthermore, the majority of our employees are based in our international offices and locations, and most of our contract manufacturing occurs outside of the United States. In addition, we outsource a portion of our research and development activities to certain third-party partners with development centers located in different countries, particularly Ukraine and India.
Our international operations, international operations of our resellers, contract manufacturers and outsourcing partners, and our efforts to maintain and increase revenue in international markets are subject to a number of risks, which are generally greater with respect to emerging market countries, including the following:
growth and stability of the economy in one or more international regions, including regional economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Russia-Ukraine conflict and rising tensions between China and Taiwan and the United States;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
changes in foreign government regulations and telecommunications standards;
import and export license requirements, tariffs, taxes, economic sanctions, contractual limitations and other trade barriers;
our significant reliance on resellers and others to purchase and resell our products and solutions, particularly in emerging market countries;
availability of credit, particularly in emerging market countries;
longer collection periods and greater difficulty in enforcing contracts and collecting accounts receivable, especially from smaller customers and resellers, particularly in emerging market countries;
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compliance with the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and/or similar anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws, particularly in emerging market countries;
the burden of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws, treaties and technical standards;
fulfilling “country of origin” requirements for our products for certain customers;
difficulty in staffing and managing foreign operations;
business and operational disruptions or delays caused by political, social and/or economic instability and unrest (e.g., Ukraine), including risks related to terrorist activity, particularly in emerging market countries;
changes in economic policies by foreign governments, including the imposition and potential continued expansion of economic sanctions by the United States and the European Union on the Russian Federation;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including the imposition of new trade restrictions, trade protection measures, import or export requirements, trade embargoes and other trade barriers, including those between the United States and China;
any negative economic impacts resulting from the political environment in the United States or the United Kingdoms’ exit from the European Union; and
business and economic disruptions and delays caused by outbreaks of disease, epidemics and potential pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which has led and may continue to lead to trade shows and in-person meetings being canceled or delayed and employees working remotely, and which has impacted our supply chain and may continue to impact our supply chain or general business in other manners.
We have certain international customers who are billed in their local currency, primarily the Euro, British pound and Japanese yen, which subjects us to foreign currency risk. In addition, a portion of our operating expenses relating to the cost of certain international employees, are denominated in foreign currencies, primarily the Euro, Israeli shekel, British pound, Singapore dollar, Chinese yuan and Indian rupee. Although we do hedge against the Euro, British pound, Israeli shekel and Japanese yen, gains and losses on the conversion to U.S. dollars of accounts receivable, accounts payable and other monetary assets and liabilities arising from international operations may contribute to fluctuations in our operating results. Furthermore, payment cycles for international customers are typically longer than those for customers in the United States. Unpredictable payment cycles could cause us to fail to meet or exceed the expectations of security analysts and investors for any given period.
Most of our international revenue is denominated in U.S. dollars, and fluctuations in currency exchange rates could cause our products to become relatively more expensive to customers in a particular country or region, leading to a reduction in revenue or profitability from sales in that country or region. The potential negative impact of a strong U.S. dollar on our business may be exacerbated by the significant devaluation of a number of foreign currencies. Also, if the U.S. dollar were to weaken against many foreign currencies, there can be no assurance that a weaker dollar would lead to growth in customer spending in foreign markets.
Our operations outside the United States also require us to comply with a number of U.S. and international regulations that prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties for corrupt purposes. For example, our operations in countries outside the United States are subject to the FCPA and similar laws, including the U.K. Bribery Act. Our activities in certain emerging countries create the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments by one of our employees, consultants, sales agents or channel partners that could be in violation of various anti-corruption laws, even though these parties may not be under our control. Under the FCPA and U.K. Bribery Act, companies may be held liable for the corrupt actions taken by their directors, officers, employees, channel partners, sales agents, consultants, or other strategic or local partners or representatives. We have internal control policies and procedures with respect to FCPA compliance, have implemented FCPA training and compliance programs for our employees, and include in our agreements with resellers a requirement that those parties comply with the FCPA. However, we cannot provide assurances that our policies, procedures and programs will prevent violations of the FCPA or similar laws by our employees or agents, particularly in emerging market countries, and as we expand our international operations. Any such violation, even if prohibited by our policies, could result in criminal or civil sanctions against us.
The effect of one or more of these international risks could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Some anti-takeover provisions contained in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.
We have provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws that could have the effect of rendering more difficult or discouraging an acquisition deemed undesirable by our Board. These include provisions:
authorizing blank check preferred stock, which could be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to our common stock;
limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers;
limiting the ability of our stockholders to call, and bring business before, special meetings;
requiring advance notice of stockholder proposals for business to be conducted at meetings of our stockholders and for nominations of candidates for election to our Board;
controlling the procedures for conducting and scheduling of Board and stockholder meetings; and
providing our Board with the express power to postpone previously scheduled annual meetings and to cancel previously scheduled special meetings.
These provisions could delay hostile takeovers, changes in control of the Company or changes in our management. As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation law, which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of our outstanding common stock. Any provision of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.
Our common stock price may be extremely volatile, and the value of an investment in our stock may decline.
Our common stock price has been highly volatile. We expect that this volatility will continue in the future due to factors such as:
general market and economic conditions, including inflation, rising interest rates, volatile capital markets and ongoing supply chain disruptions and the related impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Russia-Ukraine conflict and rising tensions between China and Taiwan and the United States;
actual or anticipated variations in operating results;
increases or decreases in the general stock market or to the stock prices of technology companies;
announcements of technological innovations, new products or new services by us or by our competitors or customers;
changes in financial estimates or recommendations by stock market analysts regarding us or our competitors;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, dispositions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
announcements by our customers regarding end user market conditions and the status of existing and future infrastructure network deployments;
additions or departures of key personnel; and
future equity or debt offerings or our announcements of these offerings.
In addition, in recent years, the stock market in general, and The NASDAQ Global Select Market and the securities of technology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. These fluctuations have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of individual companies. These broad market fluctuations have in the past, and may in the future, materially and adversely affect our stock price, regardless of our operating results. In these circumstances, investors may be unable to sell their shares of our common stock at or above their purchase price over the short term, or at all.
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We cannot guarantee that our stock repurchase program will be fully implemented or that it will enhance long-term stockholder value.
In February 2022, our Board of Directors approved a stock repurchase program for the repurchase of up to $100 million of the outstanding shares of our common stock. The repurchase program expires in February 2025 and we are not obligated to repurchase a specified number or dollar value of shares. Share repurchases will be made from time to time in open market purchases and 10b5-1 trading plans, as permitted by securities laws and other legal requirements. Any share repurchases remain subject to the circumstances in place at that time, including prevailing market prices. As a result, there can be no guarantee around the timing or volume of our share repurchases. The stock repurchase program could affect the price of our common stock, increase volatility and diminish our cash reserves. Our repurchase program may be suspended or terminated at any time and, even if fully implemented, may not enhance long-term stockholder value.
Our stock price may decline if additional shares are sold in the market or if analysts drop coverage of or downgrade our stock.
Future sales of substantial amounts of shares of our common stock by our existing stockholders in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline. In addition, we issue additional shares upon exercise of stock options, including under our 2002 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, and in connection with grants of restricted stock units on an ongoing basis. To the extent we do not elect to pay solely cash upon conversion of the Notes, we will also be required to issue additional shares of common stock upon conversion. Increased sales of our common stock in the market after exercise of outstanding stock options or grants of restricted stock units could exert downward pressure on our stock price. These sales also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity or equity-related securities in the future at a time and price we deem appropriate.
The trading market for our common stock relies in part on the availability of research and reports that third-party industry or securities analysts publish about us and our business. If we do not maintain adequate research coverage or if one or more of the analysts who do cover us downgrade our stock or publishes inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price may decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause the liquidity of our stock and our stock price to decline.
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Item 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
Item 2.PROPERTIES
All of our facilities are leased, including our principal operations and corporate headquarters in San Jose, California. We have research and development centers in the United States, France, Israel and Hong Kong. We have sales and service offices primarily in the United States and various locations in Europe and Asia. Our leases, which expire at various dates through September 2032, are for an aggregate of approximately 303,087 square feet of space. We have two business segments: Video and Broadband. Because of the interrelation of these segments, a majority of these segments use substantially all of the properties, at least in part, and we retain the flexibility to use each of the properties in whole or in part for each of the segments. We believe that the facilities that we currently occupy are adequate for our current needs and that suitable additional space will be available, as needed, to accommodate the presently foreseeable expansion of our operations.
Item 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, we are involved in lawsuits as well as subject to various legal proceedings, claims, threats of litigation, and investigations in the ordinary course of business, including claims of alleged infringement of third-party patents and other intellectual property rights, commercial, employment, and other matters. While certain matters to which we are a party may specify the damages claimed, such claims may not represent reasonably possible losses. Given the inherent uncertainties of litigation, the ultimate outcome of these matters cannot be predicted at this time, nor can the amount of possible loss or range of loss, if any, be reasonably estimated.
An unfavorable outcome on any litigation matters could require us to pay substantial damages, or, in connection with any intellectual property infringement claims, could require us to pay ongoing royalty payments or could prevent us from selling certain of our products. As a result, a settlement of, or an unfavorable outcome on, any of the matters referenced above or other litigation matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial position and cash flows.
Our industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and related litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. From time to time, third parties have asserted, and may in the future assert, exclusive patent, copyright, trademark and other intellectual property rights against us or our customers. Such assertions arise in the normal course of our operations. The resolution of any such assertions and claims cannot be predicted with certainty.
Item 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information of our Common Stock
Our common stock is traded on The NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol HLIT, and has been listed on NASDAQ since our initial public offering in 1995.
Holders
As of February 22, 2023, there were approximately 287 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid any dividends on our capital stock. At this time, we expect to retain future earnings, if any, for use in the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities
There were no unregistered sales of equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On February 3, 2022, the Board of Directors authorized the Company to repurchase up to $100 million of the Company’s outstanding shares of common stock through February 2025. The Company is authorized to repurchase, from time-to-time, shares of its outstanding common stock through open market purchases and 10b5-1 trading plans, in accordance with applicable rules and regulations, at such time and such prices as management may decide. The program does not obligate the Company to repurchase any specific number of shares and may be discontinued at any time. The actual timing and amount of repurchases are subject to business and market conditions, corporate and regulatory requirements, stock price, acquisition opportunities and other factors. As of December 31, 2022, approximately $94.9 million of the share repurchase authorization remained available.
There were no repurchase activities during the three months ended December 31, 2022.

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Stock Performance Graph
Set forth below is a line graph comparing the annual percentage change in the cumulative return to the stockholders of our common stock with the cumulative return of The NASDAQ Telecommunications Index and of the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index for the period commencing December 31, 2017 and ending on December 31, 2022. The graph assumes that $100 was invested in each of the Company’s common stock, the S&P 500 and The NASDAQ Telecommunications Index on December 31, 2017, and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any. The comparisons shown in the graph below are based upon historical data. Harmonic cautions that the stock price performance shown in the graph below is not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, the potential future performance of the Company’s common stock.
https://cdn.kscope.io/375d9ae1bc6ae41f0f0d948d6132afbc-hlit-20221231_g2.jpg

12/1712/1812/1912/2012/2112/22
Harmonic Inc.100.00112.38185.71175.95280.00311.90
S&P 500100.0095.62125.72148.85191.58156.89
NASDAQ Telecom100.0077.3991.90101.16103.3275.55
The information contained in this Stock Performance Graph section shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material,” “filed” or incorporated by reference in previous or future filings with the SEC, or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, except to the extent that Harmonic specifically incorporates it by reference into a document filed under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.
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Item 6.[RESERVED]
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Item 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the related notes. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed below and those listed under Item 1A, Risks Factors. For discussion of comparison of our results of operations and cash flows for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, refer to Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 28,2022.
Business Overview
We are a leading global provider of (i) versatile and high performance video delivery software, products, system solutions and services that enable our customers to efficiently create, prepare, store, playout and deliver a full range of high-quality broadcast and streaming video services to consumer devices, including televisions, personal computers, laptops, tablets and smart phones and (ii) broadband solutions that enable broadband operators to more efficiently and effectively deploy high-speed internet, for data, voice and video services to consumers’ homes.
We classify our total revenue in two categories, “Appliance and integration” and “SaaS and service.” The “Appliance and integration” revenue category includes hardware, licenses and professional services and is reflective of non-recurring revenue, while the “SaaS and service” category includes usage fees for our SaaS platform and support service revenue from our appliance-based customers and reflects our recurring revenue stream.
We conduct business in three geographic regions - the Americas, EMEA and APAC - and operate in two segments, Video and Broadband. During the third quarter of fiscal 2022, our Cable Access segment was renamed the Broadband segment to reflect a broader strategic view of the category. There has been no change to the composition of the segment; therefore, no prior periods were restated. Our Video business sells video processing, production and playout solutions, and services worldwide to broadband operators and satellite and telecommunications (“telco”) Pay-TV service providers, which we refer to collectively as “service providers,” as well as to broadcast and media companies, including streaming media companies. Our Video business infrastructure solutions are delivered either through shipment of our products, software licenses or as SaaS subscriptions. Our Broadband business sells broadband access solutions and related services, including our CableOS software-based broadband access solution, to broadband operators globally.
Historically, our revenue has been dependent upon spending in the cable, satellite, telco, broadcast and media industries, including streaming media. Our customers’ spending patterns are dependent on a variety of factors, including but not limited to: economic conditions in the United States and international markets, including the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine conflict, such as inflation, rising interest rates, potential supply chain disruptions, volatility in capital markets and foreign currency fluctuations; access to financing; annual budget cycles of each of the industries we serve; impact of industry consolidations; and customers suspending or reducing spending in anticipation of new products or new standards, new industry trends and/or technology shifts. If our product portfolio and product development plans do not position us well to capture an increased portion of the spending in the markets in which we compete, our revenue may decline. As we attempt to further diversify our customer base in these markets, we may need to continue to build alliances with other equipment manufacturers and suppliers, cloud service providers, content providers, resellers and system integrators, managed services providers and software developers; adapt our products for new applications; take orders at prices resulting in lower margins; and build internal expertise to handle the particular operational, payment, financing and/or contractual demands of our customers, which could result in higher operating costs for us.
More recently, the United States has experienced high levels of inflation, which may result in decreased demand for our products and services, increases in our operating costs including our labor costs, constrained credit and liquidity, reduced customer spending and volatility in financial markets. The Federal Reserve has raised, and may continue to raise, interest rates in response to concerns over inflation risk. There continues to be uncertainty in the changing market and economic conditions, including the possibility of additional measures that could be taken by the Federal Reserve and other government agencies, related to macroeconomic conditions, geopolitical disruptions and concerns over inflation risk.
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We believe a material and growing portion of the opportunities for our Video business are linked to the industry and our customers (i) continuing to adopt streaming technologies to capture, process and deliver video content to consumers and, increasingly, utilizing public cloud solutions like our VOS SaaS platform to do so; (ii) transforming existing broadcast infrastructure workflows into more flexible, efficient and cost-effective operations running in public clouds; and (iii) for those customers maintaining on-premise video delivery infrastructure, continuing to upgrade and replace aging equipment with next-generation software-based appliances that significantly reduce operational complexity. Our Video business strategy is focused on continuing to develop and deliver products, solutions and services to enable and support these trends.
Our Broadband strategy is focused on continuing to develop and deliver software-based broadband access technologies, which we refer to as our CableOS solutions, to our broadband operator customers. We believe our CableOS software-based broadband access solutions are superior to hardware-based systems and deliver unprecedented scalability, agility and cost savings for our customers. Our CableOS solutions, which can be deployed based on a centralized, DAA or hybrid architecture, enable our customers to migrate to multi-gigabit broadband capacity and the fast deployment of DOCSIS and/or FTTH data, video and voice services. We believe our CableOS solutions resolve space and power constraints in broadband operator facilities, eliminate dependence on hardware upgrade cycles and significantly reduce total cost of ownership, and are helping us become a major player in the broadband access market. In the meantime, we believe our Broadband segment will continue to gain momentum in the marketplace as our customers adopt and deploy our virtualized DOCSIS, CMTS and FTTH solutions and distributed access architectures. We continue to make progress in the development of our CableOS solutions and in the growth of our CableOS business, with expanded commercial deployments, field trials, and customer engagements.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements and related disclosures, which are prepared in accordance with GAAP, requires Harmonic to make judgments, assumptions and estimates that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingencies and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses in the financial statements and accompanying notes. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our estimates are based on historical experience and various other assumptions we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Material differences may result in the amount and timing of revenue and expenses if different judgments or different estimates were made. Refer to Note 2 of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for details of our accounting estimates.
We believe that the following critical accounting estimates involve a greater degree of judgement or complexity than our other accounting estimates. Accordingly, the critical accounting estimates that we believe have the most significant impact on Harmonic’s financial statements are set forth below:
Revenue recognition;
Valuation of inventories; and
Accounting for income taxes.
Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue from contracts with customers using the following five steps:
a) Identify the contract(s) with a customer;
b) Identify the performance obligations in the contract;
c) Determine the transaction price;
d) Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
e) Recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation.
Refer to Note 4, “Revenue,” of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about our revenue recognition policies, including critical judgments and estimates associated with our revenue recognition.
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Valuation of Inventories
We state inventories at the lower-of-cost (determined on first-in, first-out basis) or net realizable value. We write down the cost of excess or obsolete inventory to net realizable value based on future demand forecasts and historical consumption. If there were to be a sudden and significant decrease in demand for our products, or if there were a higher incidence of inventory obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and customer requirements, we could be required to record additional charges for excess and obsolete inventory and our gross margin could be adversely affected. Inventory management is of critical importance in order to balance the need to maintain strategic inventory levels to ensure competitive lead times against the risk of inventory obsolescence because of rapidly changing technology and customer requirements.
Accounting for Income Taxes
In preparing our consolidated financial statements, we estimate our income taxes for each of the jurisdictions in which we operate. This involves estimating our actual current tax expense and assessing temporary differences resulting from differing treatment of items, such as reserves and accruals, for tax and accounting purposes. These temporary differences result in deferred tax assets and liabilities, which are included within our Consolidated Balance Sheets. We maintain valuation allowances for deferred tax assets when it is likely that all or a portion of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. In determining whether a valuation allowance is warranted, we take into account such factors as prior earnings history, expected future earnings, unsettled circumstances that, if unfavorably resolved, would adversely affect the utilization of a deferred tax asset.
We are subject to examination of our income tax returns by various tax authorities on a periodic basis. We regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from such examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes. We apply the provisions of the applicable accounting guidance regarding accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, which requires application of a more-likely-than-not threshold to the recognition and derecognition of uncertain tax positions. If the recognition threshold is met, the applicable accounting guidance permits us to recognize a tax benefit measured at the largest amount of such tax benefit that, in our judgment, is more than fifty percent likely to be realized upon settlement. It further requires that a change in judgment related to the expected ultimate resolution of uncertain tax positions be recognized in earnings in the period in which such determination is made.
We file annual income tax returns in multiple taxing jurisdictions around the world. A number of years may elapse before an uncertain tax position is audited and finally resolved. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of resolution of any particular uncertain tax position, we believe that our reserves for income taxes reflect the most likely outcome. We adjust these reserves, as well as the related interest and penalties, in light of changing facts and circumstances. If our estimate of tax liabilities proves to be less than the ultimate assessment, a further charge to expense would result. If payment of these amounts ultimately proves to be unnecessary, the reversal of the liabilities would result in tax benefits being recognized in the period when we determine the liabilities are no longer necessary. Any changes in estimate, or settlement of any particular position, could have a material impact on our operating results, financial condition and cash flows.
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Results of Operations
Net Revenue
The following table presents the breakdown of net revenue by category and geographical region:
 Year ended December 31,
 (in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Appliance and integration$473,806 $369,767 $252,014 $104,039 28 %$117,753 47 %
as % of total net revenue76 %73 %67 %
SaaS and service151,151 137,382 126,817 13,769 10 %10,565 %
as % of total net revenue24 %27 %33 %
Total net revenue$624,957 $507,149 $378,831 $117,808 23 %$128,318 34 %
Americas$452,869 $335,731 $219,394 $117,138 35 %$116,337 53 %
as % of total net revenue73 %66 %58 %
EMEA133,095 126,427 117,126 6,668 %9,301 %
as % of total net revenue21 %25 %31 %
APAC38,993 44,991 42,311 (5,998)(13)%2,680 %
as % of total net revenue%%11 %
  Total net revenue$624,957 $507,149 $378,831 $117,808 23 %$128,318 34 %
Appliance and integration net revenue increased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to an increase in our Broadband segment net revenue as a result of continued penetration of existing Broadband customers and new Broadband customer deployments. The increase was partially offset by a decrease in our Video segment net revenue, which was primarily due to a reduction in sales of Appliance products and the impact of ceasing sales activities in Russia.
SaaS and service net revenue increased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to increasing usage from existing customers and activation of new SaaS customers.
Americas net revenue increased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to increased penetration of existing Broadband customers and addition of new Broadband customer deployments.
EMEA net revenue increased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to continued expansion of customer deployments of our Broadband segment. APAC net revenue decreased in 2022, as compared to 2021, mainly due to a reduction in sales of Video Appliance products.
Gross Profit
 Year ended December 31,
 (in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Gross profit$315,884$259,742$194,997$56,14222%$64,74533%
as % of total net revenue
(“gross margin”)
50.5 %51.2 %51.5 %(0.7)%(0.3)%
Our gross margins are dependent upon, among other factors, the proportion of software sales, product mix, supply chain impacts, customer mix, product introduction costs, price reductions granted to customers and achievement of cost reductions.
Our gross margin decreased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to increased mix of Broadband segment revenue as a portion of total company revenue.
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Research and Development Expenses
 Year ended December 31,
 (in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Research and development$120,307$102,231$82,494$18,076 18 %$19,737 24 %
as % of total net revenue19 %20 %22 %
Our research and development expenses consist primarily of employee salaries and related expenses, contractors and outside consultants, supplies and materials, equipment depreciation and facilities costs, all of which are associated with the design and development of new products and enhancements of existing products. The research and development expenses are net of French Research and Development credits.
Research and development expenses increased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to higher employee compensation costs as a result of headcount increases and annual compensation adjustments to support the growth of our Broadband business and the strategic transition of our Video segment to SaaS business.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
 Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Selling, general and administrative$146,717$138,085$119,611$8,632 %$18,474 15 %
as % of total net revenue23 %27 %32 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to higher employee compensation costs as a result of headcount increases and annual compensation adjustments.
Amortization of Intangibles
 Year ended December 31,
 (in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Amortization of intangibles$$507$3,019$(507)(100)%$(2,512)(83)%
There was no amortization of intangibles expense in 2022, as intangible assets were fully amortized during the first quarter of fiscal 2021.
Restructuring and Related Charges
We have implemented several restructuring plans in the past few years. The goal of these plans is to bring operational expenses to appropriate levels relative to our net revenues, while simultaneously implementing extensive company-wide expense control programs. We account for our restructuring plans under the authoritative guidance for exit or disposal activities. The restructuring and related charges are included in “Cost of revenue” and “Operating expenses-restructuring and related charges” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Cost of revenue$533 $571 $1,094 $(38)(7)%$(523)(48)%
Operating expenses
Restructuring and related charges3,341 110 2,322 3,231 2,937 %(2,212)(95)%
Total restructuring and related charges$3,874 $681 $3,416 $3,193 469 %$(2,735)(80)%
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Restructuring and related charges increased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to higher severance and employee benefit costs recorded in conjunction with restructuring activities in fiscal 2022, including the impact of ceasing operations in China and Russia.
Refer to Note 11, “Restructuring and Related Charges,” of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Interest Expense, Net
 Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Interest expense, net$(5,040)$(10,625)$(11,509)$5,585 (53)%$884 (8)%
Interest expense, net decreased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to the adoption of ASU 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, on January 1, 2022, which eliminated debt discounts on the 2022 Notes and 2024 Notes resulting in an elimination of debt discount amortization expense. Refer to Note 2, “Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements,” of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for details of the ASU adoption. The decrease is also attributed to the repayment of the 2022 Notes in December 2022 upon their maturity.
Loss on Convertible Debt Extinguishment
 Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Loss on convertible debt extinguishment$— $— $(1,362)$— n/a$1,362 (100)%
The loss on convertible debt extinguishment of $1.4 million in 2020 includes $0.9 million loss related to the exchange of a portion of the 2020 Notes in June 2020 and a $0.5 million loss related to the settlement of the remaining 2020 Notes in December 2020. Refer to Note 12, “Convertible Notes and Other Debts,” of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Other Income (Expense), Net
 Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Other income (expense), net$4,006 $687 $(897)$3,319 483 %$1,584 (177)%
Other income (expense), net is primarily comprised of foreign exchange gains and losses on cash, accounts receivable and intercompany balances denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the reporting entity. Our foreign currency exposure is primarily driven by the fluctuations in the foreign currency exchanges rates of the Euro, British pound, Japanese yen and Israeli shekel. The change in other income (expense), net in 2022, as compared to 2021, was primarily due to a gain of $4.2 million recognized on the sale of our investment in Encoding.com in May 2022. Refer to Note 3, “Investment in Equity Securities,” of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for details on the sale of investment in Encoding.com.
Income Taxes
 Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes$16,303 $(4,383)$3,054 $20,686 (472)%$(7,437)(244)%
The change in provision for (benefit from) income taxes for 2022, as compared to 2021, was primarily due to mandatory capitalization and amortization of research and development expenses in the United States starting January 1, 2022, as required by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which resulted in additional income tax in the United States, offset by the utilization of net operating losses and tax credits. In 2021 there was a valuation allowance release of $8.6 million in a foreign jurisdiction in recognition of their improved historical earnings and increasing future projected earnings which contributed to the tax benefit recognized for fiscal 2021.
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Segment Financial Results
Year ended December 31,
(in thousands, except percentages)2022202120202022 vs. 20212021 vs. 2020
Video
Revenue$274,189$288,507$242,510$(14,318)(5)%$45,99719 %
as % of total revenue44%57%64 %(13)%(7)%
Gross profit165,618169,468132,092(3,850)(2)%37,37628 %
Gross margin %60%59%54 %1%5%
Operating income22,32228,4601,326(6,138)(22)%27,1342,046 %
Operating margin % %10 %%(2)%%
Broadband
Revenue$350,768$218,642$136,321$132,12660 %$82,32160 %
as % of total revenue56%43%36 %13%7%
Gross profit153,03193,19166,66159,84064 %26,53040 %
Gross margin %44%43%49 %1%(6)%
Operating income52,28315,59911,65136,684235 %3,94834 %
Operating margin % 15 %%%8%(2)%
Total
Revenue$624,957$507,149$378,831$117,80823 %$128,31834 %
Video
Our Video segment net revenue decreased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to a reduction in sales of Appliance products, reflecting lower shipments of appliance products and the impact of ceasing sales activities in Russia, partially offset by an increase in SaaS and service revenue, reflecting increasing usage from existing customers and activation of new SaaS customers. Video segment operating margin decreased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to the decrease in revenue and increased investment in research and development to support strategic transition to the SaaS business, partially offset by gross margin expansion in SaaS and Appliance.
Broadband
Our Broadband segment net revenue increased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to the increased penetration of our existing customers and new customer deployments in 2022. Our Broadband segment operating margin increased in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to the increase in revenue and margin expansion driven by favorable mix and cost savings in freight and shipping as a result of strategic investments in inventory.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We expect to continue to manage our cash from operations effectively, together with deploying cash in working capital for growth. The cash we generate from our operations enables us to fund ongoing operations, our research and development projects for new products and technologies, and other business activities. We continually evaluate our cash needs and may decide it is best to raise additional capital or seek alternative financing sources to fund our operations, the growth of our business, to take advantage of unanticipated strategic opportunities, or to strengthen our financial position, including through drawdowns on existing or new debt facilities or new financing (debt and equity) funds. In the future, we may enter into other arrangements for potential investments in, or acquisitions of, complementary businesses, services or technologies, which could require us to seek additional equity or debt financing. Additional funds may not be available on terms favorable to us or at all. Conversely, we may also from time to time determine that it is in our best interests to voluntarily repay certain indebtedness early. We repaid $37.7 million of principal in cash of the 2022 Notes upon maturity in December 2022. We believe that our current sources of funds will provide us with adequate liquidity during the 12-month period following December 31, 2022, as well as in the long-term.
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Material Cash Requirements
Our principal uses of cash will include repayments of debt and related interest, purchases of inventory, stock repurchases, payments for payroll, restructuring expenses, and other operating expenses related to the development and marketing of our products, purchases of property and equipment, facility leases, and other contractual obligations for the foreseeable future.
As of December 31, 2022, we had outstanding $131.4 million in aggregate principal amount of indebtedness, consisting of our 2024 Notes and other debts, of which $4.8 million is scheduled to become due in the 9-month period following December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2022, our total minimum lease payments are $37.6 million, of which $7.1 million is due in the 12-month period following December 31, 2022. For details regarding our indebtedness and lease obligations, refer to Note 12, “Convertible Notes and Other Debts”, and Note 5, “Leases”, respectively, of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
On February 3, 2022, the Board of Directors authorized us to repurchase, from time to time, up to $100 million of our outstanding shares of common stock through February 2025, at such time and such prices as management may decide. The program does not obligate us to repurchase any specific number of shares and may be discontinued at any time. As of December 31, 2022, approximately $94.9 million of the share repurchase authorization remained available.
Sources and Conditions of Liquidity
Our sources to fund our material cash requirements are predominantly from our sales of our products and services and, when applicable, proceeds from debt facilities and debt and equity offerings.
As of December 31, 2022, our principal sources of liquidity consisted of cash and cash equivalents of $89.6 million, net accounts receivable of $108.4 million, and our $25.0 million revolving credit facility with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. Refer to Note 12, “Convertible Notes and Other Debts,” of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for details of the Credit Agreement.
Our cash and cash equivalents of $89.6 million as of December 31, 2022 consisted of bank deposits held throughout the world, of which $67.7 million was held outside of the United States. At present, such foreign funds are considered to be indefinitely reinvested in foreign countries to the extent of indefinitely reinvested foreign earnings. In the event funds from foreign operations are needed to fund cash needs in the United States and if U.S. taxes have not already been previously accrued, we may be required to accrue and pay additional U.S. and foreign withholding taxes in order to repatriate these funds.
Summary of Cash Flows
 Year ended December 31,
(in thousands)202220212020
Net cash provided by (used in)
Operating activities$5,476 $41,017 $39,163 
Investing activities(1,288)(12,975)(32,205)
Financing activities(43,133)7,939 (2,109)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents(4,900)(1,195)738 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$(43,845)$34,786 $5,587 
Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities decreased $35.5 million in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to an increase of cash used for working capital mainly due to timing of accounts payable and investments in inventories, partially offset by higher net income in fiscal 2022.
We expect that cash provided by or used in operating activities may fluctuate in future periods as a result of a number of factors, including but not limited to, the impact of COVID-19, the Russia-Ukraine conflict and related macroeconomic conditions on demand for our offerings, fluctuations in our operating results, shipment linearity, accounts receivable collections performance, inventory and supply chain management, and the timing and amount of compensation and other payments.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities decreased $11.7 million in 2022, as compared to 2021, primarily due to proceeds from the sale of our investment in Encoding.com and lower purchases of property and equipment in fiscal 2022.
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Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities increased $51.1 million in 2022 compared to 2021, primarily due to the repayment of the $37.7 million principal of the 2022 Notes in December 2022, lower proceeds from issuance of common stock to employees through stock option exercises, and stock repurchase transactions initiated in fiscal 2022.
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New Accounting Pronouncements
Refer to Note 2 of the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements for a full description of recent accounting pronouncements, including the dates of adoption and estimated effects, if any, on results of operations and financial condition.
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Item 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
We market and sell our products and services through our direct sales force and indirect channel partners in North America, EMEA, APAC and Latin America. Accordingly, we are subject to exposure from adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates, primarily the Euro, British pound, Israeli shekel and Japanese yen. Our U.S. dollar functional subsidiaries account for approximately 97%, 96% and 95% of our consolidated net revenues in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We recorded net billings denominated in foreign currencies of approximately 15%, 18% and 22% of total company billings in 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. In addition, a portion of our operating expenses, primarily the cost of personnel to deliver technical support on our products and professional services, sales and sales support and research and development, are denominated in foreign currencies, primarily the Euro, Israeli shekel and British pound.
We use derivative instruments, primarily forward contracts, to manage exposures to foreign currency exchange rates and we do not enter into foreign currency forward contracts for trading purposes.
Derivatives Not Designated as Hedging Instruments (Balance Sheet Hedges)
We enter into forward currency contracts to hedge foreign currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities. These derivative instruments are marked to market through earnings every period and mature generally within three months. Changes in the fair value of these foreign currency forward contracts are recognized in “Other income (expense), net” in the Consolidated Statements of Operations, and are largely offset by the changes in the fair value of the assets or liabilities being hedged.
The U.S. dollar equivalents of all outstanding notional amounts of foreign currency forward contracts are summarized as follows:
December 31,
(in thousands)20222021
Derivatives not designated as hedging instruments:
   Purchase$7,971 $2,926 
   Sell$— $5,175 
Interest Rate Risk
Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our outstanding debt arrangements with variable rate interests as well as our borrowings under the Credit Agreement.
On December 19, 2019, we entered into a Credit Agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. as lender, and Harmonic International GmbH, as co-borrower. The Credit Agreement provides for a secured revolving loan facility in an aggregate principal amount of up to $25.0 million, based on a borrowing base of eligible accounts receivable and inventory. On October 28, 2022, we amended the Credit Agreement to (i) extend the Credit Agreement maturity date to October 28, 2025, or subject to certain exceptions, the date that is 90 days prior to the maturity date of our 2024 Notes (to the extent the 2024 Notes remain outstanding as of such date) and (ii) amend the interest rate provisions to replace LIBOR with SOFR as the interest rate benchmark for the revolving loans. As amended, the revolving loans bear interest, at our election, at a floating rate per annum equal to either (1) 2.00% plus the greater of (i) 2.50% and (ii) the prime rate as reported in the Wall Street Journal from time to time or (2) 3.00% plus adjusted term SOFR for an interest period of one, three or six months. Except in cases of default, prepayment or conversion, Interest on the revolving loans is payable monthly in arrears, in the case of prime rate loans, and at the end of the applicable interest period, in the case of SOFR loans. We had no revolving borrowings under the Credit Agreement from the closing of the Credit Agreement through December 31, 2022.
For our French entity, the aggregate debt balance at December 31, 2022 was $15.9 million, which are financed by French government agencies. These debt instruments have maturities ranging from one to five years, expiring from 2023 through 2026. These loans are tied to the 1-month EURIBOR rate plus spread. Refer to Note 12, “Convertible Notes and Other Debts,” of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. As of December 31, 2022, a hypothetical 1.0% increase in interest rates on our debts subject to variable interest rate fluctuations would increase our interest expense by approximately $0.2 million annually.
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As of December 31, 2022, we had $115.5 million aggregate principal of the 2024 Notes outstanding, which have a fixed 2.00% coupon rate. Additionally, during fiscal 2020, we received a loan from Société Générale S.A. in France which bears an effective interest rate of 0.51% per annum, in connection with relief loan programs related to the COVID-19 pandemic. As of December 31, 2022, the outstanding balance of this loan was $5.3 million.
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Item 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements
 Page
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Harmonic, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheet of Harmonic, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders' equity and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 28, 2023, expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.



Inventory Valuation
Description of the Matter
The Company’s net inventory totaled $121 million as of December 31, 2022. As explained in “Note 2: Accounting Policies” within the consolidated financial statements, inventory is stated at the lower of cost (determined on a first-in, first-out basis) or net realizable value. The Company establishes a provision for excess and obsolete inventory to reduce such inventory to its estimated net realizable value.

Auditing management’s estimates for excess and obsolete inventory involved auditor judgment due to the assessment of management’s estimates of whether a provision for excess and obsolete inventory is required. The measurement of any excess of cost over net realizable value is judgmental and is impacted by a number of factors that are affected by general economic and market conditions outside the Company’s control. Specifically, excess and obsolete inventory calculations are sensitive to assumptions that relate to future customer demand for the Company’s products.

How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of internal controls over the Company’s excess and obsolete inventory reserve process. This included controls over management’s determination of inventory valuation, including the evaluation of future demand of the Company’s products and the completeness and accuracy of the data underlying the excess and obsolete inventory valuation.

We performed audit procedures that included, among others, assessing the Company’s methodology over the computation of the provision for excess and obsolete inventory, testing the significant assumptions and the underlying inputs used by the Company in its analysis including historical sales trends, expectations regarding future demand, changes in the Company’s business, customer base, product life cycles and other relevant factors. We evaluated current inventory levels compared to future demand and historical sales.


/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2021.

San Jose, California
February 28, 2023
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Harmonic, Inc.
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Harmonic, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Harmonic, Inc. (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, based on the COSO criteria.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the 2022 Consolidated Financial Statements of the Company and our report dated February 28, 2023 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

San Jose, California
February 28, 2023
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HARMONIC INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except per share data)
 December 31,
 20222021
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$89,586 $133,431 
Accounts receivable, net108,427 88,529 
Inventories120,949 71,195 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets26,337 29,972 
Total current assets345,299 323,127 
Property and equipment, net39,814 42,721 
Operating lease right-of-use assets25,469 30,968 
Goodwill237,739 240,213 
Other non-current assets61,697 56,657 
Total assets$710,018 $693,686 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Convertible debt, current$113,981 $36,824 
Other debts, current4,756 4,992 
Accounts payable67,455 64,429 
Deferred revenue62,383 57,226 
Operating lease liabilities, current6,773 7,346 
Other current liabilities66,724 53,644 
Total current liabilities322,072 224,461 
Convertible debt, non-current 98,941 
Other debts, non-current11,161 12,989 
Operating lease liabilities, non-current24,110 29,120 
Other non-current liabilities28,169 31,379 
Total liabilities385,512 396,890 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 18)
Convertible debt (Note 12) 883 
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 5,000 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding
  
Common stock, $0.001 par value, 150,000 shares authorized; 109,871 and 102,959 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively
110 103 
Additional paid-in capital2,380,651 2,387,039 
Accumulated deficit(2,046,569)(2,087,957)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(9,686)(3,272)
Total stockholders’ equity324,506 295,913 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$710,018 $693,686 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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HARMONIC INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share data)
 Year ended December 31,
 202220212020
Revenue:
     Appliance and integration$473,806 $369,767 $252,014 
     SaaS and service151,151 137,382 126,817 
Total net revenue624,957 507,149 378,831 
Cost of revenue:
     Appliance and integration259,027 195,445 126,948 
     SaaS and service50,046 51,962 56,886 
Total cost of revenue309,073 247,407 183,834 
Total gross profit315,884 259,742 194,997 
Operating expenses:
     Research and development120,307 102,231 82,494 
     Selling, general and administrative146,717 138,085 119,611 
     Amortization of intangibles 507 3,019 
     Restructuring and related charges3,341 110 2,322 
Total operating expenses270,365 240,933 207,446 
Income (loss) from operations45,519 18,809 (12,449)
Interest expense, net(5,040)(10,625)(11,509)
Loss on convertible debt extinguishment  (1,362)
Other income (expense), net4,006 687 (897)
Income (loss) before income taxes44,485 8,871 (26,217)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes16,303 (4,383)3,054 
Net income (loss)$28,182 $13,254 $(29,271)
Net income (loss) per share:
Basic$0.27 $0.13 $(0.30)
     Diluted$0.25 $0.12 $(0.30)
Weighted average common shares:
Basic105,080 101,484 96,971 
     Diluted112,378 106,171 96,971 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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HARMONIC INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(In thousands)
 Year ended December 31,
 202220212020
Net income (loss)$28,182 $13,254 $(29,271)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Defined benefit plan626 (233)(159)
Translation gain (loss) (6,956)(8,022)8,279 
Other comprehensive income (loss) before tax(6,330)(8,255)8,120 
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes84 873 (801)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax(6,414)(9,128)8,921 
Total comprehensive income (loss)$21,768 $4,126 $(20,350)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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HARMONIC INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands)
 Common StockAdditional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
 SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 201991,875 $92 $2,327,359 $(2,071,940)$(3,065)$252,446 
Net loss— — — (29,271)— (29,271)
Other comprehensive income, net of tax— — — — 8,921 8,921 
Issuance of common stock under stock option, award and purchase plans3,822 3 3,807 — — 3,810 
Stock-based compensation— — 18,034 — — 18,034 
Exercise of warrant2,413 2 (2)— —  
Reclassification from mezzanine equity to equity for 2020 Notes— — 2,410 — — 2,410 
Conversion feature of 2022 Notes— — 8,254 — — 8,254 
Conversion feature of exchanged portion of 2020 Notes— — (6,909)— — (6,909)
Issuance of common stock upon conversion of 2020 Notes94 1 606 — — 607 
Balance at December 31, 202098,204 $